Show all

A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE PRACTICE CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS IN NIGERIA

5,000

ATTENTION:

BEFORE YOU READ THE CHAPTER ONE/ABSTRACT OF THE PROJECT TOPIC BELOW, PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION BELOW.THANK YOU!

 

INFORMATION:

YOU CAN GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT OF THE TOPIC BELOW. THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N5,000 ONLY.

THE FULL INFORMATION ON HOW TO PAY AND GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT IS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE. OR YOU CAN CALL: 08137701720

 

 

A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE PRACTICE CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS IN NIGERIA

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Very little is known about the architectural firms in Nigeria. The study  thus  explored  the

characteristics of architectural firms  in  Nigeria  empirically  using  the  systems  approach  to  the study of organizations. The study investigated the organizational profiles, cultures,  strategies  and structures of the architectural firms. The tasks and information  technology  characteristics  of  the architectural  firms  as  well  as  the  external  influences  on  the  firms   were   also   investigated, culminating in the investigation of the types of architectural firms that existed in Nigeria.This study thus took an approach which was  exploratory  and  descriptive.  Therefore,  the research  was  mainly  inductive.   The   architectural   practice   was   studied   as   a   professional organization and the architectural firms were  studied  holistically,  taking  the  systems  approach. The  sample  size  was  derived  from  the  list  of  architectural   firms   registered   by   Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON, 2006). The purposive  and  random  sampling  methods were employed. The survey  and  qualitative  methods  were  used,  with  the  firm  as  the  unit  of analysis. The survey instrument was the structured questionnaire, while the qualitative  instrument was the interview schedule. The  ninety-two  (92)  questionnaires  collected  were  analyzed  using frequencies, cross tabulations, the chi-square test, principal component analysis, the coefficient  of correlation (Pearson’s product-moment correlation  coefficient),  Multiple  Analysis  of  Variance, (MANOVA), discriminant analysis, regression analysis and cluster  analysis.   The  data  from  the interview were analyzed using content analysis.

The five types of firms identified by the study included male-dominated firms,  amorphous

firms, conventional firms, stable/ traditional firms and versatile firms.  The most important  causes of differences between the types of architectural firms in Nigeria  were  level  of  specialization  of activities, and varieties of services offered, which accounted for more than half of  the  differences between the firms.

Most of the architectural firms sampled in Nigeria were found  to  be  more  than  ten  (10)

years old, small sized, and owned by a sole principal. They had the culture of innovation,  but  not the culture of aggression in the pursuit of business opportunities or concern for  profit.  The  study found that most of the clients of the architectural firms  were  private  individuals  in  Nigeria  and most of their projects were residential projects. Most of the clients of the architectural  firms  were sourced through personal contact and the projects most of the  firms  carried  out  were  those  that they were able to obtain commissions for. Most of the firms were engaged in projects  which  used the design and build method and these firms were found to  have  more  residential  projects.  Also participation in design and build method appeared to be a survival strategy as  the  firms  that  had existed for more than 15 years did not participate in projects which used  this  method.  The  firms mostly used competence in design, followed by AUTOCAD and information  technology  literacy as criteria for the selection of staff. Findings of the  study  indicated  that  information  technology facilities were highly available in most of the firms, and the internet was mostly used for  sourcing information. The results also suggest that the internet was used as a tool for centralization.

The study further found that the external influences on most of the architectural firms were

not so strong and the greatest influences were those exerted  by  clients,  advances  in  information technology and the national economy.  The  characteristics  of  the  firms  most  affected  by  these external influences were the staff management culture of the firms, the strategic goals of the  firms and the qualification and experience of the principal.

The study concluded that architectural firms need to  take  advantage  of  the  opportunities

provided by information technology to operate on a global level. There is a need  for  architectural schools in Nigeria to fully   integrate  internship  into  the  study  of  architecture  as  well  as  train students extensively in construction  methods  to  meet  the  demands  of  architectural  firms.  The study further concluded that there is a need for the business  training  of  architects  as  this  was  a factor responsible for the success of architectural  firms.  The  systems  approach  to  the  study  of architectural firms had been useful and practical.  More  studies  are  required,  using  the  systems approach, on peculiarities of architectural firms and their management strategies.

TABLE OF CONTENT

—————————i

Declaration  —————————ii

Certification————————–iii

Dedication   ————————–iv

Acknowledgement   ————————v

Abstract ————————–vi

Table of Content———————viii

List of Tables   ————————xiv

List of Figure   ————————xvi

List of Plates   ————————xx

Appendices ————————xxi

CHAPTER ONE         INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of Study —————–1

1.1       Problem Definition ——————–3

  1. Aim and Objectives of the Research —————-8
  2. Justification ———————-8
  3. Scope of Study ——————10

1.5       Summary——————–11

 

CHAPTER TWO        LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0        Introduction———————12

2.1       Perspectives in the Study of Organizations————-12

2.2       Contingency Theory and Organizational Characteristics   ———14

2.3       Characteristics of Organizations————–14

2.3.1    Technological Characteristics————18

2.3.2    Structural Characteristics    —————20

2.3.3    Strategy  ——————21

2.3.4     Personnel Characteristics   —————21

2.3.5    Physical Environment————–22

2.3.6    Culture of Organizations: Goals and Value Systems ——22

2.3.7    External Environment————–23

2.4       Organizational Configuration and Organizational Patterns———24

2.5       Organizational Classification ————–25

2.5.1    Approaches to Organizational Classification ——–26

2.5.2     Typological and Taxonomical Procedures in Organizational Classification —————-28

2.6       The Study of Professions    —————–30

2.7       The Study of Professional Organizations   ————-32

2.8       The Architectural Profession and its Characteristics  ———–33

2.9       The Architectural Firm  —————34

2.9.1    Architectural Practice as Professional service   ——-35

2.9.2    Architectural Practice as Creative Endeavour   ——-36

2.9.3    Architecture as Business————-36

2.10     Challenges to Architectural Practice   ————–49

2.11     The Characteristics of Architectural Firms ————41

2.11.1  Strategies of Architectural Firms———-42

2.11.1 1           Business Strategies ———43

2.11.1.2           Competitive Strategy ———44

2.11.1.3           Staffing Strategies   ————46

2.11.2  Structure of Architectural firms ———–47

2.11.3  Organizational Profile  of Architectural Firms ———49

2.11.4  Technological characteristics ———–50

2.12     Studies of Architectural firms————-52

2.13     Methodological Approaches to the Study of Architectural Firms. ——53

2.14     Summary——————-54

 

CHAPTER THREE    CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

3.0       Introduction ——————–57

3.1       The System Approach to the Study of Organizations——-57

3.2       Empirical Approach to classification ———–60

3.3        Summary    ——————–61

 

CHAPTER FOUR       METHODOLOGY

4.0        Introduction———————62

4.1       Methodological Approach  —————–62

4.2       The Study Population —————-62

4.3       Sampling Method    ——————-63

4.4       Size of Sample   ——————63

4.5       Subjects  ——————–66

4.6.1    Data Collection Instruments  ————–66

4.6.2    Questionnaire/ Interview Design    —————66

4.7       Data Collection and Treatment  ————–67

4.7.1    Sub Problem 1—————-67

4.7.2    Sub Problem 2—————-68

4.7.3    Sub Problem 3—————-69

4.7.4    Sub Problem 4—————-69

4.7.5    Sub Problem 5—————-70

4.8       Pilot Test– ——————-70

4.9       Preliminary Survey Details —————–70

4.10     Chapter Summary   ——————-71

 

CHAPTER FIVE        PROFILES OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS

5.0       Introduction ———————73

5.1       Age Profiles of Firms  ——————-73

5.2       Ownership Form of Firms   —————–74

5.3       Reasons Why Principals Started Firms  —–77

5.4       Registration Status of Firms  ————–77

5.5       Staff Profiles of the Architectural Firms————78

5.5.1    Number of Staff in Architectural Firm  ———-78

5.5.2    The Number of Professionals in the Firms ———–80

5.5.3    The Number of Support Staffs in the Firms———–81

5.5.4    Qualification of the Architects in the Firms   ———–83

5.5.5    Designation of Architects   —————84

5.5.6    Gender Profile—————-85

5.6       Client Profile  ——————87

5.6.1    Clientele and Ownership Form of Architectural Firms ——88

5.6.2    Client and Age of Architectural Firm ————-89

5.7       Economic Profile    ——————-90

5.7.1    Average Size of Projects Carried Out in the Last two Years  ——-90

5.7 2    Sizes of Projects Targeted in the Next One Year   ———92

5.7.3    Means of Remuneration ————–93

5.7.4    Perception of the Successes of the Architectural Firms ——94

5.8       Characteristics of the Principal  ————–96

5.8.1    Gender of Principal —————–96

5.8.2    Age of Principal —————-97

5.8.3    Number of Firms that Principal Previously Worked in ——98

5.8.4    Highest Qualification of Principal  ————-99

5.8.5    Additional Qualifications of Principals–  ——–100

5.8.6    Years of Experience of Principal    ————101

5.8.7    Number of Years of experience of Principal before Starting firms——-103

5.8.8    Institutions Attended by Principals ———–103

5.9       Factors of Organizational Profile of Architectural Firms      —-105

5.10     Types of Architecture Firms Based on the Profiles of the Firms   —–107

5.10.1  Profile Attributes of Firms in cluster 1  ——–108

5.10.2  Profile Attributes of Firms in cluster 2  ——–109

5.10.3  Profile Attributes of Firms in cluster 3  ——–109

5.10.4  Profile Attributes of Firms in cluster 4  ——–110

5.10.5  Profile Attributes of Firms in cluster 5  ——–111

5.11 Summary——————111

 

CHAPTER SIX            CULTURAL PROFILE OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS

6.0       Introduction ——————–114

6.1       Organizational Culture of Architectural Firms  ———114

6.2       Major Cultural values of Architectural firms  ————118

6.3       Cultural Values of Architectural Firms and Other Characteristics of the firm—-119

6.3.1    Organizational Cultural Values of Architectural Firms and Innovation–119

6.3.2    Cultural Values of Architectural Firms and Ownership Form   —-120

6.3.3       Cultural Values of Architectural Firms and Means of Remuneration—–

121

6.3.4    Cultural Values of Architectural Firms and the Age of the Principal—–121

6.4       Leadership Styles of the Principal  ————–122

6.5       Spatial Arrangement of Most Parts of Architectural Offices —–124

6.6       Personalization of the Reception Area   ———–125

6.7       Factors of organizational Culture of Architectural Firms   ——–126

6.8       Types of Architectural Firms Based on the Cultures of the Firms ——128

6.8.1    Cultural Attributes of Firms in the First Cluster——-129

6.8.2    Cultural Attributes of Firms in the Second Cluster——–130

6.8.3    Cultural Attributes of Firms in the Third Cluster   ——–131

6.8.4    Cultural Attributes of Firms in the Fourth Cluster ——–132

6.9       Summary——————-133

 

CHAPTER SEVEN    ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS

7.0       Introduction ——————–135

7.1       Business Strategies of Architectural Firms ————135

7.1.1    Client Group Targeted   ————-135

7.1.2    Projects in the Firm’s Portfolio  ———–137

7.1.3    Reasons for the Proportions of Different Project Types—–138

7.1.4    Means of Building Clients  —————139

7.2       Competitive Strategies of Architectural Firms  ———-142

7.2.1    Network of Branches of Architectural Firms ——–143

7.2.2    Network of Branches in West Africa and other Parts of the World——-144

7.2.3    Collaboration with other Firms  ————145

7.2.4    Long-term Contracts and Sub-Commissions ——–150

7.2.5    Architectural Firms and Building Procurement Methods   ——-152

7.2.6    Ranking of Strategic Principles of Architectural Firms ——155

7.2.7    Major Strategic Principles of Architectural Firms  ———157

7.3       Staffing strategies of Firms —————–158

7.3.1    Criteria for Selection of Staffs (Architects)———–158

7.3.2    Means of Retaining Competent staffs———-160

7.3.3    Staffing Mode of Architectural Firms———-163

7.4       Types of Architectural Firms based on the Strategies of the Firms——-164

7.4.1    Types of Architectural Firms based on the Business strategies —-164

7.4.2    Types of Architectural Firms based on the Competitive Strategies——-168

7.4.3    Types of Architectural Firms based on the Staffing Strategies —-172

7.5       Summary——————–175

 

CHAPTER EIGHT     THE OFFICES STRUCTURE AND TASK AND INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS

8.0       Introduction ———————178

8.1       Specialization of Duties —————-178

8.2       Formalization of Activities —————–181

8.3       Centralization of Decision Making —————182

8.4       Delegation of Authority —————-185

8.5       Forms of Organizational Structures of the Architectural Firms——186

8.6       Task and information technology characteristics of Architectural Firms   —–189

8.6.1    Services Offered by the Architectural Firms ——–189

8.6.2    Organization of Staff for Execution of Projects——–190

8.6.3    Subletting of Services————–191

8.7 Information Technology Characteristics of the Firms  ———–194

8.7.1    Availability of Information Technology Facilities in Firms   ——-194

8.7.2    Application of Internet Facilities in Architectural Firms    ——-195

8.7.3    Websites and Electronic Mail (E-Mail) Addresses ———198

8.7.4    Information Technology, Size Ownership Forms and Structures of

Architectural Firms —————–197

8.8       Types of Architectural Firms based on the Office Structures; and Task and

Information Technology Characteristics of the Firms   ——–199

8.8.1     Types of Architectural Firms based on the Office Structures   —-199

8.8.2    Types of Architectural Firms based on the Task and Information

Technology Characteristics of Architectural Firms———203

8.9       Summary——————–205

 

CHAPTER NINE        TYPOLOGIES OF FIRMS AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES ON FIRMS

9.0        Introduction———————208

9.1       Strength of External Influences on firms    ————-208

9.2       The External Environment and other Characteristics of Architectural Firms—–210

9.3       Characteristics of architectural firms and success of the firm   ——212

9.4       Characteristics of architectural firms and success of the firms when the firms

are severely influenced by the external environment——–216

9.5        Description of the External Factors of the Architectural Firms—222

9.6       Types of Architectural Firms  —————–223

9.7       Determinants of Organizational Differences between Architectural Firms   —–227

9.8       Summary——————–228

 

CHAPTER TEN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

10.0     Introduction ———————230

10.1     Summary of Results and Conclusion—————-230

10.2     Implications of the Findings   —————–233

10.3     Opportunities for Further Research—————234

10.4     Concluding Remarks   ——————-235

REFERENCES  ———————-236

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1            Location of Registered Architectural Firms in Nigeria ——-10

Table 4.1         Calculated Sample Sizes—————65

Table 4.2         Distribution of Questionnaires to Architectural Firms According to City

Locations——————-71

Table 5.1         Ages of Firms as Contained in the Register of Architectural Firms Entitled to

Practice in Nigeria   ——————74

Table 5.2         Ownership Form of Firms from the Register of Architectural Firms Entitled to

Practice in Nigeria   ——————79

Table 5.3         Number of Professionals in Firms  ————–81

Table 5.4         Number of Support Staffs in Firms ————–82

Table 5.5         Qualification of Architects  —————-84

Table 5.6          Designation of Architects  —————-85

Table 5.7          Sex of Staffs  —————–86

Table 5.8         Clients of Architectural Firms   ————-88

Table 5.9         Means of Remuneration —————93

Table 5.10       Additional Qualifications of principals of architecture Firms   —-101

Table 5.11        Institution Attended by Principal   ————-104

Table 5.12       Profile Factor Descriptions —————106

Table 6.1         Ranking of Cultural Values—————115

Table 6.2         Factors of Cultural Values of Architectural Firms ———118

Table 6.3         Correlations between Innovation and other Cultural Attributes—-120

Table 6.4         Cultural Factor Descriptions   —————128

Table 7.1         Reasons for Collaboration     ————149

Table 7.2         Ranking of Strategic Principles of Architectural Firms —-156

Table 7.3         Factors of Strategic Principles of Architectural Firms  ——158

Table 7.4         Ranking of Criteria for Selection of Staffs (Architects)——159

Table 8.1         Formalization of Activities    ————182

Table 8.2         Centralization of Decisions    ————183

Table 8.3         Ranking of the Frequencies of Services offered by Architectural Firms   —-190

Table 8.4         Ranking of Availability of Information Technology Facilities —-194

Table 8.5         Ranking of the Application of Internet Facilities   ———195

Table 9.1         Ranking of Strength of external Influences on Architectural Firms   —–209

Table 9.2:        Discriminant Analysis- Success of firms———–

–213

Table 9.3         Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients- Success of Firms —–214

Table 9.4         Functions at Group Centroids- Success of Firms   ———214

Table 9.5         Classification Results- Success of Firms    ———–215

Table 9.6:        Discriminant Analysis- Success under severe external influences —–217

Table 9.7         Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients- Success under severe external

influences    ——————-217

Table 9.8         Functions at Group Centroids- Success under severe external influences —218

Table 9.9         Classification Results   Success under severe external influences ——–218

Table 9.10       Discriminant Analysis- Success under weak external influences   —–220

Table 9.11       Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients- Success under weak external influences——–221

Table 9.12       Functions at Group Centroids- Success under weak external influences   —221

Table 9.13       Classification Results- Success under weak external influences    —–221

Table 9.14       Categorical Principal Component Analysis ” Model Summary—-223

Table 9.15            Description of Dimensions of the external environment   ——-223

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure 2.1        The Organizational System——————17

Figure 2.2        Sources of Business for Professionals ‘————–38

Figure 3.1        Outline of the Researcher’s Process of Thought    ————60

Figure 5.1        Ages of firms ——————-74

Figure 5.2        Ownership Forms of Firms ——————75

Figure 5.3        Registration of Firm with ARCON—————-78

Figure 5.4        Total Numbers of Staff in Architectural Firms ———–79

Figure 5.5        Percentage of Staff of Architecture Firms who were Women  ——-86

Figure 5.6        Average Size of Project   done in the last two years ———91

Figure 5.7        Cost of Projects Targeted in the Next One Year    ————92

Figure 5.8        Perception of the Firm’s Success   —————-94

Figure 5.9        Gender of Principal ——————–96

Figure 5.10      Age Group of Principal —————–97

Figure 5.11      Number of Firms that Principal Previously worked in  ———98

Figure 5.12      Highest Qualification of Principal  ———99

Figure 5.13      Possession of Other Qualifications by Principal———–101

Figure 5.14      Number of Years of experience of Principal ———-102

Figure 5.15      Number of Years that the Principal had been registered with Architects

registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON)  ————-102

Figure 5.16      Number of Years of Experience of Principal Before Starting Firms ——-103

Figure 5.17       Cluster Distributions of Types of Architectural Firms Based on the Profiles

of the Firms ——————108

Figure 5.18       Variables Important in the Formation of Cluster 1 of Firms Based on Profiles–108

Figure 5.19       Variables Important in the Formation of Cluster 2 of Firms Based on Profiles–109

Figure 5.20       Variables Important in the Formation of Cluster 3 of Firms Based on Profiles–110

Figure 5.21       Variables Important in the Formation of Cluster 4 of Firms Based on Profiles–110

Figure 5.22       Variables Important in the Formation of Cluster 5 of Firms Based on Profiles–111

Figure 6.1        Description of the Principals ————–123

Figure 6.2       Spatial Arrangements of Architectural Offices–   ———124

Figure 6.3       Number of Items in the Reception Area–  ———125

Figure 6.4       Are there Drawings in the Reception Area?   ——–125

Figure 6.5       Are there Models in the Reception Area?      ——–125

Figure 6.6       Are there artworks or Paintings in the Reception Area?– ——-126

Figure 6.7       Are there Plants in the Reception Area?–  ———126

Figure 6.8       Are there Awards, Plaques or Souvenirs in the Reception Area?   ——-126

Figure 6.9       Are there Reading Materials in the Reception Area?  ————

126

Figure 6.10     Cluster distribution of Firms Based on Cultures– ———129

Figure 6.11     Attributes of Firms in the First Cluster Based on Culture   ———130

Figure 6.12     Attributes of Firms in the Second Cluster Based on Culture  ———131

Figure 6.13     Attributes of Firms in the Third Cluster Based on Culture ———131

Figure 6.14     Attributes of Firms in the Fourth Cluster Based on Culture   ———132

Figure 7.1       Client Groups Targeted  —————-136

Figure 7.2      Client Groups Targeted- Multiple Response Results  ——–136

Figure 7.3       Proportions of Different Project Types in Firms’ Portfolios   ———138

Figure 7.4       Reasons for the Proportions of Project Types ————–139

Figure 7.5       Proportions of Clients from Various Sources ———-140

Figure 7.6       Network of Branches of Architectural firms  ———-143

Figure 7.7        Number of Branches of Architectural Firms in Nigeria——–143

Figure 7.8        Network of Branches in West Africa and Other Parts of the World —-145

Figure 7.9        Does the Firm Collaborate Locally with other Firms?  ——-146

Figure 7.10      Does the Firm Collaborate with other Firms outside Nigeria?  —–146

Figure 7.11      Firms Collaborated with Locally    ————–147

Figure 7.12      Firms Collaborated with Internationally    ————147

Figure 7.13      Type of Collaboration Firms Were Involved in———148

Figure 7.14      Reasons for Collaboration- Multiple response Results ——-150

Figure 7.15      Proportion of Firms with Long-term Contracts ———151

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to 08137701720

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

 

NOTE:

YOU CAN ALSO MAKE A TRANSFER PAYMENT

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08137701720

 

AFFILIATE LINKS:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.net.ng

www.easyprojectsmaterials.net.ng

www.easyprojectsmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.academia.edu