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“A MODERN BAKERY, UMUNYA, OYI L.G.A. ANAMBRA STATE” UMUNYA, OYI L.G.A ANAMBRA STATE
The efficiency of production depends on how well the various machines; production facilities and employee’s amenities are located in a factory. Only the properly laid out factory can ensure the smooth and rapid movement of material, from the raw material stage to the end product stage. Factory layout encompasses new layout as well as improvement in the existing layout.An ideal factory layout should provide the optimum relationship among the output, floor area and manufacturing process. An efficent factory layout is one that aims at achieving various objectives like efficient utilization of available floor space, minimizes cost, allows flexibility of operation, provides for employees convenience, improves productivity etc.The entrepreneurs must possess the expertise to lay down a proper layout for new or existing plants. It differs from one factory to another. But basic principles to be followed are more or less same. From the point of view of factory layout, we can classify small business into three catagories i.e.
(a) manufacturing units
(c) services establishments.
Designing of layout is different in all above three categories e.g. manufacturing unit may follow one of product,process and fixed position or combined layout,as the case may be.
Traders might go either for self-service or full service or special layouts whereas service establisments such as motels, hotels, and restaurants
must give due attention to customer convenience,quality of service, efficiency in delivering the service etc. While deciding for layout for factory or unit or
store, a small entrepreneur has to consider the factors like the nature of the product, production process,size factory building, human needs etc.
Baking business is fast growing in this country since its existence in early nineteenth century. A sample survey conducted showed that baked products especially bread is eaten by most families in this country daily. This necessitates a continuous supply of bread and other baked products to all parts of the federation.
The problem however is that most factory (bakery) buildings are substandard, dirty and without any formal design. Most of the buildings were suitable for our needs earns decades ago but are almost certainly inadequate for the present and future needs. This is true when one realizes that fast technological changes are taking place, the result of which is the development of computer techniques in industry and commerce, the expansion of mass production into new fields and the extension of industrial automation. It is certain therefore that the entire work pattern for many people in industry and commerce will be completely changed with different form of work, new working hours and different conditions of work which will affect not only their working lives but their leisure activities as well. These changes are however geared towards greater efficiency and higher productivity.
Without stressing the obvious, I hasten to say that factory buildings with an ideal Landscaping play an important part in promoting industrial efficiency. It is therefore not enough for buildings in which people work to be a shell designed around a production flow diagram. The production flow in a modern factory and the work pattern in an office may be of vital importance but the environment in which workers carry out their task is oven more important; for human beings will always be necessary to control, operate and maintain the hardware of industry and commerce.
The project — MODERN BAKERY UMUNYA is therefore aimed at providing an ideal shelter for the production of bread products. In the design proper, special consideration is taken to provide a conducive internal and external environment for the workers; smooth and correct merging of the workers and machines which inevitably will result in efficient management, effective machine operations and declining machine depreciations.
Again, we all know that food is the most vital and indispensable need of man. The apparent food shortage currently being experienced in the country has more than ever before heightened the need to accelerate efforts directed at tremendously increasing food production to meet the demand of the ever increasing population. This does not mean that there is scarcity of baked products. The fact is that the standard of bakeries in this country is low and may not meet the demand for baked products in the nearest future if left in its present state. It is in cognizance of these facts that I had to embark on this project.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Most bakeries presently in the country are manual bakeries (hand craft). A few however, are mechanized but mostly with obsolete machinery which drastically affects the quality of their products. Also, the rate at which human beings handle bread is alarming from the raw material stage, through production, retailers to the consumers. One therefore cannot ever stress the need for automation in baking industry.
Poor and unhealthy bakery buildings which are of no architectural interest abound everywhere. These undersigned buildings are sited even between residential houses. Thus constituting a nuisance through production of noise, and also becoming a fire hazard.
The shortage of raw materials and manpower are other problems facing bakeries in the country. Shortage of raw material causes increase in the price of baked products while manpower shortage affects its quality.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that the result of this study, based on the material collected locally and from other parts of the world through magazines, journals, correspondence will be of value to those who build baking factories and offices in the future and those who design them. By so doing, the buildings they erect may not only be efficient and valuable aids to improved productivity, but also provide a humane environment for the workers who spend a large part of their lives within the bakery walls.
1.4 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN RESEARCH
The underlisted assumptions were taken in respect of research work, it is assumed that
1.5 MOTIVATION –NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
There is an urgent need for a better and comfortable atmosphere for producing bread and other baked products, considering especially that most of these everyday food items have hitherto been prepared in undersigned filthy places.
Like we all may know, uncleanliness in the preparation of food can have an indirect effect on its nutritious value. The climate in Nigeria supports the development of microorganisms which require warmth, food and moisture to develop and multiply. When they are growing and while they are being handled by people, foods can become contaminated by these organisms. Flies often contaminate food when they alight on it, as they are carriers of disease. Often a time that is what happens in many bakeries. Baked products (bread) are left exposed to flies and other diseases. Sand/stone is usually found in most loaves.
There is also the need to raise the quality of bread and other baked products in the country today through research into various methods of improvement by employing specialists Food technologists. In addition, the controller to be provided in the bakery of this nature will ensure the provision of certain percentage protein, fat, sugar etc. to better the quality of the products making them more palatable and digestible.
The study will create an avenue where different local materials will be tried through the research unit. The successful utilization of local raw materials will certainly reduce the price of the final products. It is also hoped that it will be a training ground for those who are interested in the act of baking.
The project will be a source of revenue for the government and to many Nigerians who will be employed into such organized system of production. This study will also ensure the safety and comfort of workers through the provision of a relaxed and interesting landscape. It would also promote imagery as an architectural form i.e. having a structure that translates its function
1 .6 LIMITATIONS
(a) Finance:-This is the most important factor that hinders the smooth execution of this project or study.
There was limited amount from the researcher (student) which was not enough to cover the entire country. Even the initial idea to travel overseas for some useful information could not be implemented. Also my research has to be limited to some selected towns in three states of the federation. These are Lagos, Anambra, Abia and Enugu state.
(b) Human Factor:-Many of the human resource managers were reluctant to give out information about their bakeries because of the substandard nature of these bakeries. To worsen the situation, the demand for the photocopy of the plan of the bakeries aroused suspicion from the human resource managers. They doubted or questioned the intentions of such project. They feared I could be a government agent and was scared of NAFDAC invading their bakeries.
(c) Foreign Case Studies: This is another area where the I met obstacle. It took me to other libraries and to engage in correspondence with friends overseas. Although, the internet was of immense aid.
1.7 AREAS OF SURVEY
The study is designed to investigate critically the present status of bakery industries in Nigeria. However for the purpose or this research, the areas covered include Enugu, Anambra, Lagos, and Abia State. Others include some bakeries in some neighbourhood.
Although there are many small scale bakeries in these towns, only few of them were selected as case studies. Others were served with the questionnaires which they filled and returned to me. The selection of those written on as case studies was based on the availability of sufficient information on them.
Bakeries visited include the following:
(1) BUTTERFIELD BREAD …….Lagos
(2) UTC BREAD……. Lagos
(3) LEVENTIES FOODS LTD……Lagos
(4) HIGHLIFE BREAD INDUSTRY …..Aba
(5) ALLIANCE BAKERY ……Onitsha
(6) CHITIS BAKERY……Enugu
1.8 RESEARCH Research Method
The research method for this study was questionnaire and interviews. After a comprehensive study of relevant literature, journals, periodicals and researches carried out by some scholars, the researcher was able to draw up the questionnaire.
The questionnaire contained simple questions and sentences. Proper answer to these questions provided the researcher with information necessary for modern bakery design.
Some of the questions however needed specialties.
The researcher visited each bakery in person. On arrival, the researcher was directed to the executive director or the proprietor to whom I explains my mission along side with a letter of introduction issued by the Department of Architecture, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus.
The questionnaires were giving to the Executive Director or Proprietor who in most cases asks that me to come for collection the following day. This they say is necessary to enable them have a proper look at the questions. The proprietors were assured that the purpose of the exercise is purposefully for a research project, that it is not designed to expose their faults thereby making their industry vulnerable to attack by government agencies. They were guaranteed of absolute confidence in the information they would give.
The consumers’ questionnaire is designed to seek the opinion of the public as regard the baked products around them especially bread. It was also aimed at determining the consumption rate of broad in the area of project location. These questionnaires were distributed by some friends to different families. However, to ensure a fair percentage of correct returns, I personally administered some of the questionnaire to some families.
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