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UTILIZATION OF SCHOOL LIBRARY RESOURCES IN TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OBIO/AKPOR L.G.A. OF RIVERS STATE
The study is a survey of utilization of school library resources in teaching in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. To achieve this five(5) research questions were formulated. Four hundred and ten (410) teachers were used as sample out of eight hundred and twenty (820) that forms the population of the study from the fourteen secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Questionnaires and observation checklist were used to collect data. Tables, percentages and mean were used for data analysis. It was found that most of the relevant materials were not available in all the schools. Some problems such as lack of convenient accommodation, lack of funds, lack of reading tables and chairs, non-involvement of library staff in collection development, lack of qualified librarians were among the problems of these libraries. The major recommendations are: that there is need to increase full allocation of the school libraries, the state branch of Nigerian library Association (NLA) should organize development and training courses for school librarians and media specialist to enhance their efficiency in the running of the school libraries, the Post Primary Schools Board (PPSB) should see to it that every secondary school established should have a library, new books and other educational resource materials should be provided including audio-visual equipment, principals of various schools should encourage both teachers and students to maximize the use of few resources at their disposal, among others.
Background of the Study
The term “Utilization” is got from the word “Utilize” which means to use. Therefore utilization means the process of using something. In the context of this work, utilization means the process of using library resources in teaching. According to Dike (1989:365) “utilization is defined as being able to employ appropriate instructional material expertly and at the right time in order to attain an instructional objective”.
Accessibility of library resources can play a major role in encouraging reading by making a varied collection available to teachers and student (Dike, 2007:36). Hence, accessibility will encourage teachers to go and browse, read and use the library resources in the libraries. The full utilization of these materials will help to uplift the objectives of secondary education.
The school libraries have been seen by various authors as an indispensable tools essential for modern teaching in schools. This position is informed by the role the library resources play in enhancing effective teaching especially in secondary schools. The library is designed to facilitate teaching in schools. According to Edoka (2000) school libraries refers to those libraries in primary and secondary schools which select, acquire, conserve, retrieve and disseminate information to both teachers and students for the broad goals, aims and objectives of the school as well as that of education itself.
The term “school libraries” with time and technological development has changed its traditional concept and meaning. Today, the school library is also called: school library resource centre, school media centre, instructional media centre, media resource centre, learning resource centre. These terms evolved in schools in place of the traditional school library. It aims at the meeting the requirement of modern philosophy of education that stresses the need for individualized instruction and the use of multi-media resources in teaching. Hence, Dike (2006:1) stated that “the school libraries has been described as “the heart” of the school, learning resource centre and the laboratory of all laboratories”. Just as “the heart” is central to the human body so also the library is to the school. It means that the library is the core aspect of the school system. If the library is removed from the workings of the school, the aims for establishing the school will not be achieved. Fayose (1995) asserts that “the school library resource centre is that part of the school where a collection of books, periodicals, magazines and newspapers, films and filmstrips, recording of all types, computers are housed”.
School library is usually a collection of books and other resource materials organized and placed in a silent environment in the school for use by teachers and students. Onanuya and Okeh in Adesoji (2008). According to them its collections are maintained with the funds provided by the school through gifts received from the Ministry of Education, information service, philanthropic organization and Parent Teachers Association (P.T.A.). Teachers and students go to the library singly or in small group to satisfy their information needs, identifying sources of information, evaluating sources of information. Just to mention but a few. The secondary school library provide teachers with a variety of resources required for teaching. Teachers encounter books of various types- periodicals and the ranges of audio-visual resources. The variety of resources help in instruction by providing different formats to carter for individual learners – gifted, average or slow.
The library being a resource centre houses materials that could help a teacher carry out his duty efficiently. These resources are: Book – general, reference, non-fiction and fiction books, Periodicals, Newspapers, Audio materials – discs, phonographic records, audio-tapes on reals and cassettes. It is imperative to note that no education can rise above the quality of its teachers and the library has a role to play in harnessing teachers for quality output. Hence, teachers in secondary schools should be provided with libraries to improve their skills in use like browsing the shelves, use of catalogue cards, use of reference materials and teaching methods.
The school library through its resources is the best educational services that can facilitate teacher quality and qualitative education for students, this is because it fosters lifelong learning and resource based learning. American library Association as quoted by Ferdinand and Ezekwe (1999) listed the responsibility or function of the school library as follows:
The school library resources have the potentials for enhancing teacher’s and student’s teaching and learning process. The availability of these resources provide teachers with vast quantities of information materials which will be used in teaching. There must be communication between the teachers and learners which the library resources facilitates. Teachers are supposed to be conversant with different formats of library resources so as to know when and how to employ them in teaching.
Teaching is communication between the teacher and learner. It follows that teaching is characteristically an intentional activity which produces another characteristically intentional activity called learning. To teach therefore, is to engage someone in an activity or experience which influences a change in behaviour. Amadi (2006) emphasized that teaching is goal-oriented. It is obvious that the quality of the educational system depends on their quality and devotion. Rogers (1983) sees teaching as permitting the students to feed his or her curiosity, arguing that “merely to absorb facts is of only slight value in the future”. Concluding that learning how to learn is the element that is always of value, now and in the future”. This implies that teacher is a catalyst who makes students desirous of learning. The teacher designs the appropriate learning environment in such a way that the students are restless until they have satisfied their curiosity by interacting with other components of instructional system which includes the content, media, materials and teacher.
Teaching is the work anybody does so long as they spend part of their lives in influencing the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of others. Macytyre in Amadi (2006). Admittedly, teaching is concerned with education and behaviour change, but it is a system of activities by a formerly designated person – the teacher, and who should be of a higher knowledge, working with one or more learners to achieve certain learning outcomes. The primary function of a teacher is to facilitate learning by various means and the intention of all teaching activities is to bring about learning. Teaching has to be learner centered and the library provide the resources for resource based teaching which makes teaching learner centered. The situation at hand in our secondary school is that in realization of the fact that library is one of the educational services according to National Policy on education (Nigeria 2004), and to improve the quality of teaching and learning in secondary schools in River state, the government in collaboration with Ministry of Education supply books and other library materials to all government –aided secondary school in the state. This kind of gesture from the government attract the positive attention of both teachers and students to use the library. It is on the basis of this that this study intends to look into the utilization of library resources in teaching in secondary schools.
Statement of the problem
The school library is an important tool in the school system as it supports the secondary school curriculum and provide means which helps the school to achieve its educational objectives and goals. It does this by making available library resources which encourages self development among teachers as they use the resources in the library in planning their lesson notes and employ them in teaching and learning in classes. The school library provide a comprehensive source of learning materials in different forms for use by teachers. It serves as a store of materials and equipment for use by teachers in classrooms. Hence, its importance cannot be over emphasized.
However, it has been observed that secondary school teachers in Rivers state do not effectively use the library resources in their teaching activities. This as a result hampers the academic excellence of the students. This is evident in failures in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) and Joint and Matriculation Board (JAMB). It also makes the entire educational system to dwindle thereby leading to poor performance on the part of the students. Since teachers are not well equipped, it makes them not to render the best services that is required of them.
Researches have been carried out by the following scholars: Ogunbote and Odunewu (2008) stresses that school library in Ijebu North Local government Area of Ogun State is not given the desired priority and the provision of library services is inadequate. While Omera (2009) stresses that school libraries have limited resources, by way of personnel library materials and that teachers do not patronize the school libraries. Beyond this, no research has really been undertaken in utilization of school library resources in teaching in Obio/Akpor Local government Area. In view of this, the researcher decided to undertake this study to find out how teachers in secondary school in Obio/Akpo make use of library resources in teaching.
Purpose of the Study
The study is intended to examine the utilization of school library resources in teaching in secondary schools. The objectives of the study are as follows:
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study
Significance of the study
It is expected that the findings of this study will be useful to the following: Post Primary Schools Board (PPSB), Ministry of Education, School Management and Library Administrators, Teachers and field of Library and Information Science.
In view of these, the findings of this study will be used in formulation of data for (PPSB.) It will encourage them to develop and equipped libraries in secondary schools . It will be of immense help in planning the school curriculum.
Also, it will help the Ministry of Education to see the needs of secondary school libraries and provide funds to the libraries for its improvement. While the local Government Authorities will help in distribution of library resources.
More so, the findings of this study will help the School Management and library administrators to acquire the right information resources that will enhance teaching in secondary schools.
The findings of this study will help the teachers by exposing them to all the formats of library resources which will help them in preparing their lesson notes.
Furthermore, the work will add to the existing literature in the field of librarianship. It will serve as a model to other researchers that may wish to understudy the use of libraries.
Scope of the study
The research is limited to fourteen (14) secondary school libraries in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State. These are as follows: G.T.C. PortHarcocrt, G.S.S. Eneka, C.B.S.S. Elelenwo, C.S.S. Okoro-Odo, G.G.S.S. Rumuokwuta ,M.G.S.S. Rumueme, A.D.S.S. Bori Camp, C.S.S. Rumukwurusi, C.S.S. Rumuapara, C. S.S. Ogbogboro, O.C.S.S. Oginigba, C.S.S. Rumuekini, C.S.S. Mgbuosimini, and CSS Rumuoluemini. Also, limited to the utilization of school library resources in teaching in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local government Area of Rivers State.
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