Show all

ANALYSIS OF LOCAL WHITE WINE FROM CARICA PAPAYA

10,000

ATTENTION:

BEFORE YOU READ THE CHAPTER ONE/ABSTRACT OF THE PROJECT TOPIC BELOW, PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION BELOW.THANK YOU!

 

INFORMATION:

YOU CAN GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT OF THE TOPIC BELOW. THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N10,000 ONLY. THE FULL INFORMATION ON HOW TO PAY AND GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT IS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE. OR YOU CAN CALL: 08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

ANALYSIS OF LOCAL WHITE WINE FROM CARICA PAPAYA

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1    THE FRUIT PAPAYA

1.2.0 OBJECTIVE

1.2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.2.2 DEFINITION OF WINE

1.2.3 HISTORY OF WINE

1.2.4 WINE TYPES AND STYLES

1.2.5 WINE CLASSIFICATION

1.3.0 COMPONENTS OF WINE

1.3.1 TANNIN

1.3.2 SUGAR

1.3.3 ALCOHOL

1.3.4 ACIDITY

1.3.5 WINE ACIDS

1.4.0 WINE PRODUCTION

1.5.0 FACTOR INFLUENCING-WINE CHARACTERISTICS

1.5.1 PH

1.5.2 SULPHUR DIOXIDE

1.5.3 TREATABLE ACID

1.5.4 TEMPERATURE

1.5.5 OAK BARREL USED

1.5.6 TASTE

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1    MATERIALS

2.2.0 SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION

2.2.1 PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLIC PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR

2.2.2 ACID DIGESTION

2.2.3 STANDARDIZATION OF (2-6-DICHLOROPHENOL INDOPHENOLS)

2.3.0 DETERMINATION OF VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)

2.3.1 DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOL CONTENT

2.3.2 DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY

2.3.3 DETERMINATION OF PH

2.3.4 DETERMINATION OF SUGAR CONTENT

2.3.5 DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ACIDITY

2.40 DETERMINATION OF ASH

2.4.3 SULPHATE DETERMINATION

2.4.4 NITRATE DETERMINATION

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESULTS

3.1 DISCUSSION

3.2 CONCLUSION

3.3 REFERENCES

3.4 APPENDIX

 

ABSTRACT

The physiochemical of parameters of Ukalina (white) wine newly fermented from carica papaya and three other wines Jacob’s wine, Vigne d’oro wine, and Giacobazzi wine, purchased from the market were analysed. The parameters analysed are; PH, specific gravity, total dissolved solids, vitamin C, total acidity, total ash, sugar, alcohol content, sulphates and nitrates, captions such as sodium, calcium were also determined. The concentrations of these constituents varied widely. These variations may be due to the style which is the individual character and feature of the wine composition and the processes employed in making the wine. Age of the wines that was not determined could also contribute to the variation. The sugar concentration in Vigne d’oro wine is low and it is said to be dry while Jacob’s and Giacobazzi wines have high sugar concentration and are termed sweet wines. The alcohol in Jacob’s Ukalina and Vigne d’oro wines are high and this indicates that they are fortified wines. However the local newly wines to ascertain if they fall within close range.

 

  • INTRODUCTION

Chemical analysis provides information about the composition of a sample of matter. The analysis of the raw materials for wine production and the wine itself has now become one of the most important aspects of modern oenological quality control. Every aspect of modern wine making, from harvest of raw materials to determining the proper time to bottle is controlled by analysis12

Wine can be made from other fruits other than grape. Example of fruit like apple, peach, pineapple, etc. wine made from this fruits are regarded as safe and healthful beverages which provides calories and vitamins.

Classification of wine depends on the colour, relative sweetness, percent alcoholic, presence of carbon dioxide, the variety of grape, and their origins. Wine may be red or white in colour, for red wines, the red pigments are extracted from the juice immediately after crushing before fermentation. The term-sweet and dry refers to the relative amount of sugar in then wine. Wines with less than or equal to 14% alcohol by volume are defined as table wines and are normally consumed with meals, while dessert wines with less than or equal to 14% alcohol by volume are defined as table wines and are normally consumed with meals, while dessert wines contains over 14% alcohol. The high alcoholic content of dessert wine s containing a permanent visible excess of carbon dioxide are called sparkling wines.

Analysis of wines gives the exact amount of constituents in a wine sample, its compositions, and to ascertain if tis confirm to the approved standard.

1.1 THE FRUIT-PAPAYA

Papaya contains ‘’papain’’ which helps to digest food.

The papoaya is the fruit of the carica papaya tree. Papayas are spherical or pear-shaped fruits that can be as long as 20 inches. The ones commonly found in the market usually average about 7 inches and weigh about one gram. Their flesh is a rich orange colour with either yellow or pick hues. Inside the inner cavity of the fruit is black, round seeds be encased in a gelatinous-like substance. Papaya’s seeds are edible, although their peppery flavour is somewhat bitter.10

Originally from southern Mexico and neighbouring country, the papaya plant is now cultivated in most tropical countries. And not without reason! Papayas are rich sources of antioxidant nutrients, minerals and fibre.10

Health Benefits of papaya

Heart Disease: Papayas may be very helpful for the prevention of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease.

Papayas are an excellent source of vitamin C as well as a very good source of vitamin E and beta-carotene, three very powerful antioxidants.

These nutrients help prevent the oxidation of cholesterol.

High Cholesterol: Papayas are also a very good source of fibre, which has been shown to lowe high cholesterol levels.

The folic acid found in papayas is needed for the conversion of a substance called homocysteine damage blood vessel walls and is considered a significant risk factor for a heart attack or stroke.

Cancer: Papayas fibre is able to bind to cancer-causing toxins in the colon and keep them away from the healthy colon cells.

In addition, papaya’s folate, vitamin C, beta-cartene, and vitamin E have each been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. These nutrients provide synergistic protection for colon cells from free radical damage to their DNA.

Increasing your intake of these nutrients by enjoying papaya is an especially good idea for individuals at risk of colon cancer.

In addition, the antioxidant nutrients found in papaya are also very good at redicing inflammation. This may explain why people with diseases that are worsened by inflammation, such as asthma, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, find that the severity of their condition is reduced when they get more of these nutrients.
Food value

Wine made from papaya is regarded as a wholesome fruits juice. The daily requirements of some of the essential nutrients like proteins, mineral and vitamins can be met from this fruit. The vitamin carbohydrate content is mainly of invert sugar which is a form of pre-digested food.11

Some chemical; composition of papaya

Table 1.011

Food value

moisture

protein

Fat

Minerals

Fibre carbohydrates

Values per 100g edible portion

Minerals and vitamins

90.8%

0.6%

0.1%

0.5%

0.8%

7.2%

Calorific value-32kj

calcium

Phosphorus

Iron

Vitamin C

Small amounts of Vitamin B complex

17 mg

13 mg

0.5mg

57 mg

 

1.2.0 OBJECTIVE

This project work involves the analysis of a local white wine made from carica papaya (Pawpaw) and other wine samples. The analysis will assist in ascertain if papaya wine is comparable to other white wines. To accomplish this PH, alcohol, sugar, specific gravity, total solids, total ash, total acidity and cations such as calcium, sodium will be determined using appropriate analytical methods.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.2.2 DEFINITION OF WINE

Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the fermentation of fruits containing sugar. Yeast carry out the fermentation converting sugars into alcohols, primarily ethanol, and other chemicals that add to the wine character. Grapes are richly flavoured, colour and high in fermentable sugars making them ideal for producing wine1. The term wine is also applied to alcohol beverages made from plants other than the grape e.g. elderberry wines, dandelion wine, pineapple wine, lime flower wine etc.2

1.2.3 HISTORY OF WINE:

Yeast is the magical ingredient that turns grape juice into wine. Interestingly enough, there is actually wild yeast spores in the air and all that is really needed to make wine is an open container of grape juice and time3. Ancient pottery jars found at Godin Tepe, Iran, revealed through chemical tests that they contained wine; dating the manufacture of wine back to before the Bronze Age, C. 3500-2900 BC. Further significance of this discovery was that this area was not a grape growing one, the main crops were grain and the preferred drink of the time was beer. This suggested that wine was probably used as a commodity.

Godin was located on the silk Road from China to the Mediterrancean, the probable origin of the wine. Wines were widely cultivated in Egypt around 3000 BC and further evidence that wine was used as a commodity in trade has been revealed through other pottery finds and subsequent chemical analysis.4

A school of thought have it that fossil wines, 60 million-year-old, are the earliest scientific evidence of grapes. The earliest written account of viniculture is in the old testament of the Bible which tells us that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine5 interestingly, Prophet Mohammed, 620 AD, was reported to have made wine which as you may be aware, is in opposition to the Muslim faith which bans the consumption of alcohol. Wine further spread throughout the world through religious orders4. Wine and history have great influenced one another.5

Wine came to Europe with the spread of the Greek civilization around 1600BC. Wine was an important article of Greece commerce and Greek doctors, including Hippocrates were among the first to prescribe it. Starting about 1000BC, varieties and colours, observing and charting ripening characteristics, identifying diseases and recognizing soil to preferences. They became skilled at pruning and increasing yields through irrigation and fertilization techniques. The Romans may also have been the first to use glass bottles, as glassblowing became more common during this era.

By the first century AD, wine was being exported from the Empire (Italy) to Spain, Germany, England and France. It was not long before these regions began developing their own vineyards and the Roman Emperor forbid the import of French wines to eliminate their competition with the local wines. Over the next few centuries, France would become dominant in the word wine market.5

1.2.4 WINE TYPES AND STYLES

TYPES:

Wine type can be broadly based on the following

  • Alcohol concentration
  • Sugar concentration
  • Presence or absence of red colour
  • Presence or absence of effervescence

ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION:

Table wines will have an alcohol content of up to 15% while fortified will generally have between 18 and 22%.1

SUGAR CONCENTRATION

Grape juice that has been allowed to ferment all, or the overwhelming majority, of the fermentable sugar in the juice is termed a dry wine. It is said to have ‘’fermented to dryness’’ and contains less than 10 grams per litter of sugar. Wine with significant amount of fermentable sugars left, greater than 10 grams per litre, have a sweet taste and are termed sweet wines.1

COLOUR:

Wine has 3 principle colours, red white, or rose, aged and fortified wines may lose some or significant amount of the original pigments and develop new ones due to ongoing chemical reactions within the wine. The colour distribution and determination of these wines is sometimes difficult.1.

Effervescence:

This can be deliberate as with making sparking, due to dissolved CO2 at the point of bottling or by some other unwanted biological process and therefore a wine fault.1

STYLE:

Wine style is related to the individuals grape  and wine making factor. The style of a wine is the individual character and features of the wines composition and the processes employed to make the wine1

GRAPE FACTOR:

VARIETY: Name of predominant variety (75%) in wine (Chardonnay), Shiraz, New York champagne, California Chablis)

Place of Origin: place where the grape are grown including the climate and soil. (Santa Cruz Mountains)

Composition at harvest

Botrytis infection – (Noble Rot) the result of the fungus

Botrytis cinerea has a peculiarly beneficial effect on the grape although grape affected by Botrytis look terrible, discoloured and shrivelled. They are the starting point for making fabulous wines. The Botrytis has the effect of reducing water content in the grapes, and concentrating the grape sugars.6

Wine making factors:

Acid addition or reduction

Sugar level after fermentation colour.

Type of spirit used in fortification

Other biological processes – (Malolactiv fermentation (ML)

1.2.5 WINE CLASSIFICATION

Wines are distinguished by colour, flavour and aroma2. Wines are red, white or rose (depending on the grape and the amount of time the skins have been left ferment in the juice)2

RED WINE:

Red wine is simply produced form red or (black) grapes. Almost all grapes have colourless juice. The way the red wine got the colour is by allowing the skins soak in the juice until the red colour bleeds out.3

WHITE WINE:

Most white wine is produced from white grapes. Since wine gets its colour from allowing the skin soak in the juice, it is possible to made white wine out of black grapes by carefully extracting the juice and keeping the skins separated champagne is the most famous example. 3Blush, which is another term for rose, is considered a white wine. They ate made by allowing the skins to soak for only a short period of time before extracting3.

1.3.0 THE COMPONENTS OF WINE

1.3.1 TANNINS

The tannins in a wine are derived from the pips, skins and stalks. They are vitally important if wine is intended to age, as they are a natural preservative. The tannins give structure and backbone to the wine. They can be sensed by a furring of the month or puckering of the gums a sensation very similar to what happens on drinking stewed tea. This is unsurprising as this effect is also due to tannins, released from the tealeaves after stewing in the hot water for too long.

Tannins are of more importance in the ageing of red wines rather than white. The tannins acts as a preservative, and as they fade over many years, the simple, primary fruit flavors have time to develop into the more complec falvors that are found in fine, aged wines. A level of tannin that is sufficient to provide structure, but not so obvious as to dominate the pate, is the idea when wine is ready for drinking. For this reason tannins are still important in red wines not intended for long ageing, as they give or structure to these wines also.

Tannins may also have different qualities, and may be described as harsh (especially in a wine drunk too young). White wines will get a degree of tannins when oak barrels are used for fermentation or ageing.6

1.3.2. Sugar

Grape sugars consist mostly of two monosaccharide, glucose and fructose, and these two simple sugars occur in about equal fructose, and these two simple sugars occur in about equal proportions. Simple sugar molecules can combine and form larger sugar molecules called disaccharides and polysaccharides. Both glucose and fructose can be readily fermented, but most disaccharides and polysaccharides must be split into their smaller simple sugar components before they can be readily converted into alcohol. Many large sugar molecules can be hydrolysed and broken into smaller molecules by enzymes, acid or heat.7 when sucrose (table sugar) is added to wine, it often produces strange flavours because many weeks may be required before the wine acids can hydrolysed all of the sucrose into glucose and glucose. However, when all of the sucrose has been hydrolysed into glucose and fructose, the strange flavour has been disappears, and the wine has a normal taste.6

When fermentation is arrested, either as a result of the yeast failing in a gradually increasing alcohol level in the ferment, or as a result of man’s intervention, there will as a consequence lose some remaining sugar in the wine. Even when the yeast work is unhindered. Most wines still have at least 1g/L of residual sugar as some sugar compounds are resistant to the action of yeasts.6

Clearly, the level of sugar in the wine determines how sweet it tastes. This is quite subjective, however, and even wine that taste very dry have some degree of residual sugar. Most dry wines have less than 2g/L of sugar although level of up to 25g/L may be present in wines which still taste dry due to the present of acidity and tannin alongside the sugar.

The greater the amount of residual sugar, the sweeter the wine, moving through (champagne) and off dry wines to the desert wines of the world (sauternes, Today, etc.). Some have incredibly high concentration of sugar, as much as 250g/L6.

1.3.3 ALCOHOL

Alcohol is the product of fermentation of the natural sugars by yeast, and without it wine simply does not exit. The amount of sugar in the grape determines what the final alcohol will be. In cool climates, such as Germany where the wines struggle to ripen their grapes, sugar level will be minimal, and consequently such wines often only reach 7 or 8% strength. In very warm climates, however, the final alcohol level will be determined not so much by the amount of sugar but rather by the yeast themselves. Once the alcohol level reaches about 14% the yeast can no longer function and rapidly die off. For this reason; wine with strength of more than 15% are almost certainly fortified.6

The conversation of sugar to alcohol is such a vital step in the process of wine making. The control of fermentation is the focus of much of the attention of modern wine maker.

Fermentation generate heat, and a cool controlled fermentation will result in very different flavours in the wine (in particular, it protects fresh delicate fruit flavour) when compared with wines where fermentation is allowed to run riot.6

Although fermentation will start naturally, thanks to yeast naturally present on the grapes in the vineyard, some wine makers prefer to remove the element of chance this involves by kick-starting fermentation using cultural strains of yeast.6

1.3.4 ACIDITY

All fruits requires acidity, be it apple, mango or grape. Acidity is what gives fruit its refreshing, flavoursome sensation. Without it fruit would seem overly sweet and cloying. Just like fruits, wine also requires acidity. Too little, and it will seem dull, flabby or perhaps cloying, particularly, if it is a sweet wine. Too much the wine be sharp, harsh and undrinkable. Acidity can be detected by the sharpness of the wine in the mouth, particularly around the edges of the tongue near the front.6

Practically, all of the acids in sound wine come directly from the grapes. However, every small quantities of several organic acids are produced during primary fermentation, and under adverse conditions, bacteria in wine can produce enough acetic acid to spoil wine in a short time. The acid content of most finished table wines ranges from 0.55 to 0.85%. the desirable acid content depends on style and how much residual sugar is left in the wine. However, grapes grown in cool climates often contain too much acid, and fruit grown in warm climate generally contains little acid.7

1.3.5 WINE ACIDS:

The tart taste of dry table wine is produced by the total quality and the kinds of acids present. Tartaric and malic are the major wine acids. These two acids are present when the fermentation process into the finished wine. Wine also contains small quantities of citric, acetic, lactic and other organic acid. Some of these acids do not exist in the grapes. They are produced in small quantities by microorganisms throughout the wine making process.7

Tartaric Acid

Few fruits other than grapes contain significant amount of tartaric acid, and it is known as volatile acid, one half to two thirds of the acid content of ripe grapes is tartaric acid, and it is the strongest of the grape acids. Tartaric acid is responsible for much of the tart taste of wine, and it contributes to both the biological; stability and longevity of wine.

The amount of tartaric acid in grapes remains practically constant throughout the ripening period. However, the situation in wine is different. The quality of tartaric acid slowly decreased in wine by small amounts. Tartaric acid is resistant to decomposition, and it is seldom attached by wine mocrobes.7

Malic Acid

Malic acid is prevalent in many types of fruit. This acid is responsible for the tart taste of green apples. Malic acid is one of the biological fragile wine acids, and is easily metabolized by several different types of wine bacteria. Unlike tartaric acid, the malic acid content of grapes decrease throughout the ripening process, and grapes are grown in hot climates contain little malic acid by harvest time.7

Grapes grown in cool regions often contain too much malic acid. During alcoholic fermentation, some malic acid is metabolized, and the malic acid content of the wine decreases about 15%. Malolatic fermentation (ML) can further reduce wine acidity. When wine goes through malolatic fermentation bacteria convert the malic acid into lactic acid. Lactic is milder than malic acid and ML fermentation is a standard procedure used to reduce the acidity of wines made from grape grown in cool regions.7

In warm region, the grapes are usually deficient in acid, and removing malic acid by means of ML fermentation may not be a good idea. Malic acid is not biologically stable, and when malic acid is deliberately retained to improve the aid balance of the wine, special steps may be needed to prevent ML fermentation from occurring after the wine is bottled. Addition of small quantities of fumaric acid to the wine can inhibit ML fermentation and make the wine stable.

Lactic Acid

Lactic acid is the principal acid found in milk. Grapes contain very little lactic acid all wine contains come lactic acid, and some wine can contain significant quantities. Latic acid in wine is formed in three different ways:7

  1. A small amount is formed from sugar by yeast during primary fermentation
  2. Large amount is formed from malic acid by bacteria

 

During ML fermentation.

‘’Lactic souring’’ is the term used to described wine when sugar is converted into lactic acid by bacterial. This type of souring is a form of gross wine spoilage. Lactic souring was a common wine making problem before the used of sulphur dioxide become wide spread, but it is seldom a problem today.

Citric Acid

Only about 5% of the total acid is citric in sound grow like-malic acid, citric acid is easily converted into other materials by wine microorganisms. For example, citric can be fermented into lactic acid, and some types of lactic bacteria can ferment citric into acetic acid. Excessive amount of acetic acid are never describe in wine, so the citric acid into acetic acid fermentation can be a serious problem.

Wine makers often increase the acid content of finished white wines by adding small amount of citric acid. Citric acid imparts a citric character that enhances the taste of many wine and blush wines. However, citric acid is seldom used in red wine. The risk of biological instability is much greater in red wine7.

Other wine acids includes acetic, succinic acid etc. Titrable acid in wine is expressed in grams/100 ml ideally, the acid content of grapes should fall in the range from 0.65g/100ml to 0.85gl/100ml. the goal is to have just enough acid to produce a balance wine.7

Other wine acids includes acetic acid, succinic acid etc. Titrable acid in wine is expressed in grams/100ml. ideally, the acid content of grapes should fall in the range from 0.65g/100ml to 0.85g/100ml. the goal is to have just enough acid to produce a balanced wine7.

STRUCTURES OF MAJOR WINE ACIDS.

TATARIC ACID

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MALIC ACID

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4 WINE  PRODUCTION

Wine making require a series of steps, and each decision made by the wine maker along the way will influence the final character of the wine.3

The wine maker must first decide which grapes to use and when to harvest them. This decision is often make by measuring the amount of sugar in the grapes to determine ripeness. Also considered are the grape’s acid content, flavour and aroma.

In natural-wine making the grapes are gathered when fully ripe as over ripe as the case may be.3 A machine called a crusher break the grape berries and remove them from their storms the machine then crushes the grapes skins, pulp, juice seeds and the result is called must2 .

The length of contact between the skin and the juice influences the colour of red and blush wines and affects the taste of all wines. To make white wine, the skin and pulp of the grapes are separated from the juice before it enters the tank or barrel for fermentation. For red wine, the seeds and skins go to the fermentation tank with juice.

Fermentation is the chemical change in which yeast converts the natural grapes sugar into alcohol. Some yeast grows naturally on the skins of grapes and many wine maker allows this yeast to conduct the fermentation, while some wine makers add selected yeast to the must to begin fermentation, carbon dioxide gas is a by-product of the fermentation process and is released as bubbles. The yeast also fermentation process and is released as bubbles. The yeast also producers various other by-products which any ass to the flavour and aroma of the wine. Fermentation also releases heat, so most wineries refrigerate the must to keep its temperature constant.

White wine is generally kept a good 200c or so cooler than red wine. Fermentation temperature affects the rate of fermentation, the aroma, and the formation of yeast by products. It also determines the rate at which the colour and flavour of the grape skins transfer into the wine. Red wine ferments in 4-6 days while white wine takes 12-18 days. Many red wines, and some white will then undergo a second fermentation by bacteria called malolatic fermentation which lowers the acid contents.

A new wine appears cloudy after fermentation and wine makers clarify the wine by removing particles of yeast and other unwanted substances either by filtration, allowing them to settle naturally or separating them from the wine using a centrifuge. The wine may be further clarified by the addition of certain solemn that reduce the content of unstable or unpleasant components.

One the wine is fermented and clarified, it is time for the aging process to begin and the wine is transferred into wooden barrels or stainless steel tanks where it will remain until bottling. The temperature and humidity conditions, the length of storage time and the size and age of the barrel all influence the aging proves and thus the final character of the wine. The wine is bottled after some aging, and will continue to age slowly in the bottle.

Most white wines are ready to drink soon after bottling, but many reds require an additional few years to soften the harsher flavours and allow desirable flavours to develop. However, even red wines should generally not be aged beyond 10 years or so. For while you may then and up with an extra ordinary wine, or with an expensive bottle of vinegar.

Fortified wines, such as port or sherry, are made by adding randy to the fermenting must, and generally results in a sweet wine. Direr fortified wines add brandy near the end of the fermentation process. For sparkling wines. A second fermentation is used sugar and yeast is added to the wines, a second fermentation is used sugar and yeast is added to the wine, causing fermentation and its by –product-carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is trapped in the wine in the form of tiny bubbles, creasing sparkling wine, in the ‘’method champnoise’’ process.7

1.5.0 FACTORS INFLUENCING WINE CHARACTERISTICS

1.5.1 PH

PH is a measure of the number of hydrogen ions present solution. Consequently, the PH value reflects the quantity of acid presents the strength of the acids and the effects of mineral and other materials in the wine. Wine PH is a fundamental parameter, many different factors are involved, but wine PH depends upon three major factors:

  1. The total amount of acid present
  2. The ration of malic acid tartaric acid
  3. The quality of potassium present.8
  4. The total amount of acid present. Wine acids produce hydrogen ions, and PH is the measure of the member of hydrogen ions, and PH is the measure of the member of hydrogen ions present in a solution, overall, wine PH will be lower when treatable acid is higher. However, high titratable acid does not always produce low PH values.8
  5. The ratio malic acid to tartaric acid: tartaric acid produces almost three times more hydrogen ions than malic acid. Tartaric acid produces a much lower PH than malic acid live fore, when the total acid content is fixed, PH depends upon the relative amounts of tartaric and malic acid in in the wine. Malic acid is weaker that tartaric acid, so wines usually or wine. Malic acid is weaker than tartaric acid, so wines usually high in malic acid is weaker than titratable acid and high PH value.
  6. The quantity of potassium present: the presence for potassium and several other factor alter wine PH. Potassium (k) is essential for the growth and fruit production. Potassium (k) is essential for the growth and fruit production. Potassium is a mineral and wines obtain potassium through their roots the rots remove potassium from the soil and the potassium is distributed to all parts of the wine. When the wine growth rate is high, mush of the potassium accumulates in the leaves.8 then the potassium ions are move from the leaves into the berries later in the season when the fruits starts to ripen. Potassium ions carry positive electrical charge just like hydrogen ions. Under certain conditions, potassium ions can change places with the hydrogen ions in the tartaric acid molecules and potassium bi-tartrate is formed leaving the hydrogen ion free in the solution. Significant amounts of potassium bitartrate can also precipitate as the wine in bulk aged. When potassium bitartrate precipitates, the titrateble acid of wine decreases, but wine PH may increase, decrease or stay the same.
    • SULPHUR DIOXIDE

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a colourless gas formed from one sulphur and two oxygen atoms. Sulphur dioxide has several desirable attributes when added to wine in very small quantities. Enzymes in the grapes that cause brewing are deactivated by sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide helps protect wine from excessive oxidation. It can also reduce the oxidized smell of old wine by reacting with acetaldehyde. Sulphur dioxide is useful in controlling the growth of bacteria and yeast in wine.8

Polyphenoloxidase is the name of this enzymes, and it is the same enzymes. That causes freshly cut apples to turn brown colour. These enzymes responsible for this browning are very small, so surfur dioxide is a powerful tool for reducing enzymatic browning in white and blush wines.

  • TITRATABLE ACID (TA)

This is the measure of the total quantity of all the acids in a wine. Practically all of the acids found in wines are fixed acids. Most of the fixed acids originated in the grape juice and these acids remain during fermentation and appear in the finished wine. Fixed acids ate non-volatile and nearly odourless. Titratable acid is primarily responsible for the tart taste of table wine. Wine can be thought of as a water alcohol solution and acids in wine behave much the same as they do in any other water solution. The number of hydrogen ions in a wine depends upon the quantity of acid and the strength of the acids present in the wine7

1.5.4 TEMPERATURE

Fermentation is an exothermic process (it releases heat). But in wine making, the temperature cannot exceed (29.4oc for red wine or 15.3oc for white wines), otherwise the growth of yeast cells will stop9. Moreover, a lower temperature id desirable because it increases the production of esters other aromatic compounds and alcohol itself9. These make the wine easier to clear and less susceptible to bacterial infections.9

In general, temperature control is necessary in wine making especially during alcoholic fermentation to facilitate yeast growth, extract flavours and colours from the fruit skins, permit accumulation of desirable by-products and prevent under rise in temperature, killing the yeast cells9.

  • OAK BARRELS

Many wines are matured in oak barrels, and some are even fermented in oak.6 oak from different sources will impart different characteristics on the wine, but in general oak maturation gives aroma of butter, toffee, caramel, vanilla, spice and butterscotch.6 French oak may give more buttery aroma, whereas American oak gives stronger vanilla and spice aromas.6

1.5.6 TASTE

There are many things which influence the taste of wine includes temperature, yeast used during fermentation.3 other variables such as fermenting or storing is oak barrels also affects the taste of wine3

Sweet and sour:

The sweet and sour fairly light, with an emphasis on fruit flavour and are desgned to drink young. No need to age these wines. There can be vibrant blackberry. Cherry, plum or may be black current flavours. California and even Chile produce some fine examples of fruity reds. These wines are good for dinner because they go well with a variety of foods3

Rich, spicy:

Deep fruit flavours, hints of chocolate, black pepper and other species are common the Shiraz grape. These great tasting wines are better juiced to cooler weather because of their rich, almost warning characteristic.3

Tangy Zesty:

Wines of this style are typically described as sharp or green. This is due to the higher level of acidity that is only partial balanced out by sweeetness3.

Toasty, Butterscotch:

These flavours are typically a fermenting and or aging the wine in oak barrels. Other associated flavours are nutty, vanilla-like and sometimes smoky. The classic wine of this style is chardonnay, which is typically dry and fruity.3

Sweet Rich:

When grapes are allowed to stay on vine for a longer than average amount of time, they will sometimes become infected by a fungus called botrytis3. These funguses, sometimes called noble rot, dehydrates the grapes which is turn intensifies the sweetness of the fruit. It also produces a rich, honey like flavour. This intense sweetness is somewhat balanced by a high degree of acidity.3

Dry Neutral:

The term day is simply the opposite or absence of sweetness. Some white wines are extremely refreshing when you are very thirsty. The fact that they are neutral means that they do not exhibit any particular strongly quality.3

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

AFFILIATE LINKS:

myeasyproject.com.ng

easyprojectmaterials.com

easyprojectmaterials.net.ng

easyprojectsmaterials.net.ng

easyprojectsmaterial.net.ng

easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

projectmaterials.com.ng

googleprojectsng.blogspot.com

myprojectsng.blogspot.com.ng

https://projectmaterialsng.blogspot.com.ng/

https://foreasyprojectmaterials.blogspot.com.ng/

https://mypostumes.blogspot.com.ng/

https://myeasymaterials.blogspot.com.ng/

https://eazyprojectsmaterial.blogspot.com.ng/

https://easzprojectmaterial.blogspot.com.ng/