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BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF AVOCADO PEAR LEAF (Persea americana)

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BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF AVOCADO PEAR LEAF (Persea americana)

 

ABSTRACT

Chemical evaluation of Avocado Pear leaves. During the process of my research temperature for drying the sample was not high to avoid protein denature temperature between 50oc and 60oc was used. the proximate analysis which include the carbohydrate determination was 69. 65%, SD ± 0.01, the protein was 14.00%, SD ± 0.01, the crude fat was 7.3%, SD ± 0.02,the crude fibre was 3.7%, SD ± 0.04 the ash content was 5.26% ± 50 0.01, the moisture content was 59.84%, SD ± 0.02 and the caloric value was 401.11kcal. SD ± 00.1. the anti-nutrients determination includes; the hydrocyanide (HCN), which was 104.17mg/100g, SD ± 0.01, the phytate with 30.40mg/100g SD ± 0.01 the oxalate with 158.40mg/100g, SD ± 0.01, and the tannins with 1361.19mg/100g, SD ± 0.02. and also, the antioxidant vitamins determination which includes; the vitamin A and C. the Vitamin A determination was found to be 70.00mg/100g, SD ± 0.01, and vitamin C determination was reported as 832.72mg/100g, SD ± 0.01.

 

Keywords:         Avocado leaves, Carbohydrate, Protein, Hydrocyanide, Phytate, Vitamins.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Dedication………………………………………………………………..i

Certification………………………………………………………………ii

Acknowledgement……………………………………….……….….iii-iv

Abstract……………………………………………………….…………v

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction………………………….. …………………….…….1

1.1    Background information………………………….……………..1

1.2    Statement of the problem………………..………………………3

1.3    Objective of the problem…………..…………………..………..3

1.4    Justification of the study……………….………………………..4

1.5    Aim and Scope of the study…………………….………………4

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature review…………………………………………..……..6

2.1    Botanical Description…………………………………………….6

2.2    How to make avocado leaves tea for kidney cleansing …..12

2.3    Phytochemistry…………………………………….……………13

2.4    Pharmacological Activity………………………………………16

2.4.1 Vascorelaxant Activity…………………………………………16

2.4.2 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity……………………17

2.4.3 Hypotensive activity……………………………………………18

2.4.4 Anti convulsant effect………………………………………….19

2.4.5 Anti-viral activity………………………………………………..20

2.4.6 Wound healing activity………………………………………..20

2.4.7 Antiulcer effect……………………………………….………..21

2.4.8 Antihepatotoxic activity…………………………………….…22

2.4.9 Antioxidant activity………………………..……………….….23

2.4.10 Hypoglycemic activity………………………………………..23

2.4.11 Effect on Body weight………………………….……………24

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Collection of sample …………………………………………..25

3.1    Determination of moisture content……………………………27

3.2    Ash content…………………………………………….…….…28

3.3    Determination of crude protein content…………….….……29

3.4    Estimation of crude fibre content…………………….………33

3.5    Carbohydrate estimation……………………………..………35

3.6    Caloric Value estimation……………………………..……….36

3.7    Determination of total vitamin……………………..…………36

3.8    Vitamin C………………………..……………………………..37

 

3.9    Estimation of Vitamin A…………………………………….38

3.10 Determination of total Oxalate……………….……..……..39

3.11  Estimation of Tannin……………………………..….………41

3.12 Determination of hydrocyanic Acid………..………………42

3.12  Determination of Phytic acid……………….……..……….43

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    Result and discussion…………………………………………46

4.1    Carbohydrate…………………………………………………..47

4.2    Protein……………………………………………..…………..48

4.3    Ash……………………………………………………..………49

4.4    Fibre…………………………………………………………….49

4.5    Calories content……………………………………………….50

4.6    Lipid content……………………………………………..……50

4.7    Moisture content………………………………………………51

4.8    Total vitamin……………………………………………………52

4.8.1 Vitamin A……………………………………………………….52

4.8.2 Vitamin C……………………………………………………….53

4.9    Anti-nutrient…………………………………………………….54

4.9.1 Oxalate…………………………………………………………55

4.9.2 Phytic acid…………………………….……………………….56

4.9.3 Tannin………………………………….………………………..56

4.9.4 Hydrocyanic acid………………………….…………………..57

4.10  Removal of anti-nutritional factor……………………………57

Conclusion………………………………………………………58

Recommendation ……………………………………………..60

References………………………………………………………61

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