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BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MILKEN HILL

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BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MILKEN HILL

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Chapter one

  • location and accessibility
  • accessibility
  • purpose and scope of study
  • topography and drainage
  • literature review

Chapter Two

2.1 physiography

2.1.2 Climate and vegetation

2.1.3 Geomorphology

2.2.2. Method of study

2.2.2 Sampling

2.2.3 Laboratory Techniques

Chapter three: Regional History and Lithostratigraphy

3.1 Tectonic Frame work of the upper cretaceous

3.2 Geologic History

3.2.2 Nkporo Shale

3.2.3 Enugu Shale

3.2.4 Mamu Formation

3.2.5 Ajali Sandstone

3.2.6 Nsukka Formation

Chapter four

4.1 Biostratigraphy

Chapter five:

5.1 systematic Description

Chapter six

Summary and conclusion

6.1 summary

6.2 conclusion

References

 

ABSTRACT

The study area lies within the vicinity of the Onyeama mines. The area is about six kilometres from enugu main town in the northwest direction of Anambra state of Nigeria. Geographically, it lies roughly between latitudes 60 and 70N and ;pmgotide 60 and 70E.

                Eleven samples from three locations were collected and analysed for their fossils contents. The faunas recovered were mostly benthonic erinaceous foraminifera’s species which included the Haplophragmoides hausa, Haplophragmoides banchensis, Ammobaculites numanhensis and the clanhedbergella subcrietarea tappan. The foraminiferal assemblages recovered are used to determine the age of the formation (Mamu), the paleo environment and the kind of paleocurrent that deposited these form.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY

The study area (opposite the Onyeoma mine) is about five kilometres from Enugu town in the northwest direction of Anambra state.

Geographically, it lies roughly between latitude 60 and 70N and longitude 60 and 70E and it is located within their upper cretaceous (post Santonian) Anambra basin.

The study of the upper cretarieos (campanion – massstanchtain) mamu formation reveals a good exposure of sales along the new Enugu – Onitsha express way.

1.2 ACCESSIBILITY: Through the area was enhanced by a network of roads and some tracks. However, the thick vegetation which dominates the area impedes exposures of rocks outcrops except those road cuttings observed along the new Enugu Onitsha express road, where most samples were recovered.

1.3 PURPOSE AND SCOPE STUDY

The objective of this study is to describe the for miniferal assemblages recovered from the milken hills located 1,2 and 3 in addition to providing additional information on their biostratigraphy and palaeontology

1.4 TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

The Enugu escarpment forms a hall-like fare rising sharply form the level of about 235 metres at Enugu and its e environs to about 470 metres around the intersection of the ninth-mile corner with NSUKKA road. The escarpment, then slopes gently westwards towards Eke.

The area of study, (Milken hill) and its environs is drained mainly by the Ekulu river, which has a drainage area of about 25square miles (64 square kilometres). It is fed be several small youthful tributaries raising from the encampment and flows east-wards to join the main Nyaba River.

1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW

It is  observed that hot much work relating to the biostratigraphy sequence of the mamu formation has been carried out; but intensive research on the upper cretaceous sediments has been worked on.

The Benuee Trough is a Mesozoic rift basin that starts from the coast of the AGulf of Guinea and extends transversely as a deep ‘’Furrow’’ within the Nigeria shieldd. It forms part of the central West African rifts in the Meesozoic bifurcating rift system which connects with other continental rift in the interior west African republics of chad and Niger (Machna 1973, Burke Deney 1974). The Benue trough together with the Niger Delta constitute the Southern segment of the Trans African lineament’’ which is a deep-seated zone of crustal weakness that trends Sw – Ne from Nigeria through Niger, into Libya and Egypt (Nagy e.t al 1976).

With a length of about 1000km and a maximum width of about 300km, the origin, structure, and stratigraphy of the Benue trough has been some of the most engaging and hence better understood geologic topics in West Africa. Since it from a major – re-entrant on the continental margin of West Africa and continues into the Arica continental plata, the Benue Trough has been considered part of the three armed rift system which controlled the break-up of Gondwana (Burke e.t al 1971. 1972, Burke and white man 1973; Hottman et al 1974).

The stratigraphic succession in the Benue Trough comprises essentially thick continental and detail sandstones, paralics sandstones, sales and coal measures, and shallow epicontinental shale and limestone, (murat 1972; petters 1978). The age of the sedimentary rocks in the Benue Trough ranges from Albian to paleocene. The thicker (over 10km) and younger deposits of the Southern part of the Benue trough b3elong to the Tertiary Niger aulacogen delta magmatic rocks ranging from initial rift-generated alkaline basalts (olade 1978) to a wide variety of intrusive and extrusive suites (right 1976) together with lead-zinc mineralization are familiar features of the Benue Trough. The initial axis Albian-Santonian deposition underwent inversion movement in the Santonian as a result of regional compressive forces (Burke et al 1972; Freeth 1978) consequently, of the trough which became emergent, whereas the axis of deposition ,migrated westwards so that limitited marine sedimentation occurred in the west. The tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Benue aulacogon from the graben stage through thee downwards and compressional stages were discussed by petters (1978).

Few detailed local stratigraphic descriptions have been published (Carter et al 1963; Reyment 1965, offodila 1976) and pale contologiral investigation are limited to ammonities (e.g Reyment 1955; Barber 1857) few species of formanifera from the turonian of the southeastern part of the trough were reported in short articles by iecs sauragic (1972). And fayuose & De Klasz (1976) petters (1978ab) shows that the foraminiferal microfaunas of the Benue Trough offer an important means of refining the biostratigraphy and unravelling the stratigraphir relationships in the basin, and also offer means of understanding the paleeoenvironmental and paleocirculation patterns that prevailed during much of the basin history.

A preliminary palecological interpretation based on the foraminiferal population structure was presented for the cenomanian – coniacian peak marine phase in the Benue Trough (petters 1978ab).

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