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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VITAMIN A AND ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF CHILDREN AGED 6-24 MONTHS IN URBAN AND RURAL COMMUNITIES IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VITAMIN A AND ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF CHILDREN AGED 6-24 MONTHS IN URBAN AND RURAL COMMUNITIES IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This investigation centered on Vitamin A and anthropomet r ic status of 400 children aged 6-24 months in urban and rural communi t ies in Kaduna South

local government area, Nigeria. Select ion of chi ldren was through systemat ic

sampl ing technique. Two hundred children from each communi ty, ninety four

males (94) and one hundred and six (106) females from Makera (urban) and

ninety three males (93) and one hundred and seven (107) females from

Kinkinau ( rural) communi t ies completed the study. A st ructured quest ionnaire

was used to collect informat ion on maternal socioeconomic characteristics,

l iving condi t ions, heal th care, and 24-hour dietary recal l . Knowledge,

at t i tude and pract ice of heal thy l ife style and Vi tamin A supplementation

were assessed using focus group discussion. The anthropometric status of the

children were measured longi tudinal ly for 6 months wi th wooden length

board, and UNICEF weighing scale. Serum ret inol levels of a subsample of

100 subjects were determined. Blood samples were col lected by venipuncture

to obtain serum for measurement of retinol concentrat ion using high

performance l iquid chromatography.

 

The data was analyzed using

anthropomet ric z scores and categorized using WHO Anthro sof tware (2007).

Comparison was done using Chi square test for categorical variables and

ANOVA and t-test for cont inuous variables. Al l statistical analysis were done

using SPSS version 15 and signif icance judged at presul t , stunt ing (49.8%) was the major nutri t ional problem ident if ied in most

of the chi ldren. However, 14.1% and 7.5% were underweight and wasted,

respect ively. The composi te index of anthropomet ric fai lure (CIAF) counted

for a total of 55.3% of the chi ldren that had anthropometric fai lures.

However, 70.0 % (weight -for -length), 46.5 % (length-for-age) and 83.5 %

(weight-for-age) fell wi thin the normal region in al l anthropometr ic

indicators. The prevalence of overweight and obesi ty (combined) was high in

the rural (37%) as against 8.0% in the urban locat ion. A total of 84.5% of the

urban chi ldren had normal weight-for- length compared to 55.5% of the rural

children. Locat ion signif icant ly (p<0.05) influenced weight-for -age status.

 

However, the percentage of chi ldren wasted in both locat ions was simi lar

(7.5%). Urban chi ldren had higher (55.0%) length-for -age value than the rural

(46.5%) children. Stunt ing was more prevalent in the rural (49.8%) than in

the urban (42.0%) areas. There was st rong associat ion between locat ion and

length-for -age status (p<0.05). The rural chi ldren had higher weight -for-age

percentage (85.0%) than the urban (82.0%) chi ldren. Underweight was more

prevalent in the urban (16.0%) than in the rural (12.0%). However , locat ion

had no ef fect (p>0.05) on the weight -for-age status. Age had no relat ionship

wi th underweight , stunt ing and wast ing in the locat ions and gender. However,

age group (6-10 months ) inf luenced (p<0.05%) the prevalence of overweight

only in rural females. The growth veloci t ies fluctuated wi thin the study

period. The weight veloci ties of the male subjects were higher (p<0.05) than

those of the females whi le length veloci t ies of the females were higher

(p<0.05) than those of the males. The weight veloci t ies of the rural chi ldren

 

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