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CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This study is set out to find constraints to effective teaching and utilization of instructional material in teaching of Basic science. The study carried out is in Orumba south Local Government in Anambra State. Four research questions guided the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was in four clusters designed to elicit information from the respondent in the four research questions. The items were on a five points scale format (Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, and strongly Disagree) and (Very Great Extent, Great Extent, Moderate Extent, Low Extent, Very Low Extent). The findings of this study revealed that inadequate instructional materials and teaching in a large and un conducive environment contribute to ineffectiveness of teaching Basic science. Also some of the teachers handling Basic science are not specialized in that area and this therefore affect the academic performance the students. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made. All stakeholders should put hands on deck to ensure that skilled Basic Science teachers are employed for effective teaching of Basic Science. Also teachers should relate their lesson to real life situation so as to reduce the abstract nature of science subject.
Background of the study
Science has been and would continue to be of tremendous importance because of its ability to explain many natural occurrences and the central role it plays in the world’ current technology development. In our century, it is the soul of the prosperity of nations and it is an economic and technological development as well as improving the quality of life of the individuals and the society at large.
Science, as a school subject, has over the years gain prominence in the school curriculum world wide. In the last five decades the world has witnessed science curriculum innovations and several changes in the teaching of the content in different levels of education.
Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of behaviour of the materials and physical inverse through observation, experimentation, measurement and recordings. In additions science is often an existing and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Federal Republic of Nigeria (2007) defines science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application.
The major goal of science education is to develop scientifically literate individuals that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions. The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2006) include the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science o solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance.
In recent times, countries all over the world especially the developing ones like Nigeria are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning scientific and all proper functioning lives depend greatly on science.
Basic science as an integrated science course is taught at primary and junior level so as to prepare the child for the core science subject. Literature reveals that since processed are hardly assessed in Nigerian secondary schools, Chukwuneke and Chikwenze (2012). The fundamental aim of Nigerian Basic Science project which is a process-oriented curriculum is to develop in students science oriented skills.
However, many factors have hindered the successive implementation of standing of a students at a given moment. It refers to how an individual is able to demonstrate his or her intellectual abilities. This scholastic standing could be explained as the grades obtained in a course or groups of course taken.
In predicting academic performance, Adeyemi (2008) emphasized the use of grades in examination and reported that students’ performance in Junior secondary certificate examination could serve as a best predictor to senior secondary certificate examination performance.
This was supported by Edokpayl (2011) who reveals that the performance of students in junior secondary basic science result provides the best predictor to senior secondary schools performances in chemistry.
Basic science is a revolutionary new introductory science curriculum developed for students considering a career in science. Basic science formally known as integrated science is the first form of science a child comes across at the junior secondary school level for core science subjects (Physic, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, geography) at the senior secondary school level. This implies that for students to be able to study single science subjects at the senior secondary school level successfully, such students had to be well grounded in basic science at Junior secondary level.
The principal reason why Nigeria Government started basic science in Nigeria secondary school level are as follows
By “good teaching” we mean that the content taught accords with disciplinary standards of adequate and morally defensive and undertaken with the intention of enhancing the learners competence with respect to content. By “successful teaching” we mean that learner actually acquires some reasonable and acceptable level of proficiency from what the teacher is engaged in teaching.
Otherwise, effective teaching of any subject will not only stimulate students’ interest in the subject but also enhance their achievement in the examination. To achieve effective teaching and learning process, there is the need for use of instructional materials.
Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of Basic science to promote teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self-acquisition. They also enable both the teachers and the students to participate actively and effectively in lessons session.
According to Liber (2010), instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching learning process. Ibeneme (2000) defined teaching aids as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers’ instructional materials are print or non-print items that are used to impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as kits, textbooks, magazines, pictures, newspapers, recordings, videos, etc.
Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials.
Ikerionwu (2000) also saw instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present a lesson to the learners in logical manner. Fadeiye (2005)in his own perspective saw instructional materials as visual and audio-visual aids concrete or non-concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning.
In addition, Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use instructional aids for instructional delivery to make students achieve more knowledge and to promote academic standard. Ogbondah (2008) alerted on the gross inadequacy and underutilization of instructional materials necessary to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organ. He noted that school teachers should try their possible bets in the provision of locally made materials in substitution for the standard ones to promote their lessons.
Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Use of instructional materials can appeal to the individual attention by creating interesting goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goal he want to attain.
Brown etal (2005) summarized the roles of teaching aids as follows:
➢ It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning.
➢ They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent.
➢ They help to overcome the limited classroom by making the inaccessible accessible.
➢ They provide a common experience upon which later learning can be developed. They stimulate and motivate students to learn.
➢ They encourage participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate materials used.
One of the main reason why students in our secondary schools sometimes find it difficult to comprehend immediately what is being taught by the teacher is the non-availability of instructional materials that motivate and arouse students desire to learn.
Alodu-Raheem (2011) asserted that non-availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of the students in schools. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria teaching and learning takes place under a most conducive environment without access to essential materials.
From the fore-going statement. It can be agreed that for effective learning of basic science to take plac, students need to be properly guided by the teacher by way of using instructional materials and employing various methods and means through which his teaching could be meaningful.
Statement of problem
One of the problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of students in secondary school students in both local and standardized examinations basically basic science because this provides the best predictor to senior secondary schools performance in core science subjects. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education state holders over years. It was observed that students usually fail in examination owing to improper-teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery. (Afolabi, 2009). This study therefore deemed if necessary to look specially into the contributions of instructional materials to academic achievement of secondary school students in Basic science. The use of instructional materials to academic achievement of secondary schools is not encouraging. As a result, it makes the moral and interest of the students in basic science low.
This is because teachers adopt the verbalistic and theoretical methods as a way of teaching and learning the subject, mainly due to non-availability of instructional materials in schools. Adeniji and Adeogun (2011) found out that most secondary schools in Nigeria had no definite basic science laboratory for effective teaching and learning, also the learning barrier used by the teachers obstruct the assimilation of facts by the students as a means of communication. The question now is to what extent the use of instructional materials affects learning and students achievement in Basic Science in Secondary Schools in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State.
Purpose of the Study
The general aim of the study is to investigate the constraints to effective teaching and utilization of instructional materials in teaching basic science in secondary schools in Orumba south LGA Anambra state. Specially, the study intends to;
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The theoretical significance of this study is anchored on the cognitive development theory of Jana Piaget. According to piaget. Children develop knowledge by inventing or constructing reality out of experience and thus mix their observation with their ideas about how the world works. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development holds that cognitive development takes place from active interaction of the child with his environment. This means that the basic of learning is the child’s own ability as he interacts with physical and social environment. Piaget is of the opinion that a child must act as objects in his environment for him to learn. This means that the child should be actively involved not be passive. The active involvement of the child may be in form of direct manipulation, visual observation or through mental and internal transportation or change. Therefore, this study will help to validate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development or question the theory.
This study will be useful to the classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students on better ways of producing improvised materials with local resources where standardized materials are unavailable or inadequate. The teacher can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during basic science instructions.
The study will help students to develop problem solving skills and also be more resourceful during lessons.
The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into ration students-teachers improvised instructional materials because without this there would not see be effective teaching. The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of improvised instructional materials used in teaching/learning process in basic science and others subject areas for effective teaching and learning. The findings of this study will gently help to alleviate the problems of the scarcity of instructional materials for basic science teaching/learning.
The result of the study could provide information to researchers interested in working on student-teacher generated improvised instructional materials in other subject areas. This may help them to get more information on the area of science and technology. Parents will be better informed on how to encourage and help their wards to produce improvised materials. This may be in form of sourcing local materials and providing fund for those that cannot be found in their environment.
Scope of the study
The study is on the constraints to effective teaching and utilization of instructional materials in teaching basic science in Junior secondary schools in Orumba South L.G.A. this study will be conducted with J.S.S. 1 basic science students in secondary schools in Orumba South L.G.A of Anambra State.
This research will answer the questions:
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