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CONSTRUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL MIXER

5,000

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CONSTRUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL MIXER

 

ABSTRACT

 

Industrial mixer is equipment designed to carry out operation involved the combination of two or more substance to achieve a uniform product.        The method of fabrication of this mixer involves a preliminary computation of the dimensions of the standard which they will be used in marketing out cutting, out to sizes rolling or folding, welding, body filling and painting to prevent corrosion attack.        The result obtained after the process undergoes was a batch operation industrial mixer which can contain about 56.12 liters with statistics of the vessel being 410mm by diameter and 425mm by height.  The width of the baffle is 35mm and length of impeller 150mm. Although, the result obtained (mixer) was excellent, but do not have up to 100% mixing efficiency due to some factors during the fabrication process such as error in cutting operation, low quality material etc.         Cost of production was estimated up to thirty thousand naira when summed up, i.e the material cost, labour cost and expenses.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0    INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    Components of Mixer

 

1.2    Problems Encountered During Mixing

 

1.3    Purpose of Mixing

 

1.4    Significance of Mixing

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1    Theory of Mixing

 

2.2    Classes of Mixers

 

2.3    Types of Impeller Mixer

 

2.4    Other Types of Mixers

 

2.5    Mechanism of Mixing

 

2.6    Degree of Mixing

 

2.7    Criteria of Mixer Effectiveness

 

2.8    Power Consumption of Impeller

 

2.9    Mechanism of an Impeller Mixer

 

2.10  Application of Mixers

 

2.11  Selection of Material

 

2.12  Steel for Construction

 

2.13  Types of Steel in Construction

 

2.14  Important Properties of Steel in Construction

 

2.15  Protection of Steel

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0    METHODOLOGY

 

3.1    Construction Procedure

 

3.2  Operation  Procedure

 

3.3    Maintenance

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0    RESULT AND ANALYSIS

 

4.1    Fabrication Result

 

4.2    Dimension

 

4.3    Fabrication Analysis

 

4.4    Cost Analysis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation

 

5.1    Discussion

 

5.2    Conclusion

 

5.3    Recommendations

 

Reverence

 

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0    INTRODUCTION

 

Mixers are equipments used to prepare a uniform combination of two or more substances. It is used in mixing operation which is very common operation carried out in chemical and process industrial. It may involve the mixing of solids, liquids or gases in any possible combination involving two or more of the above.

 

Mixing operation is an operation that is performed in order to bring about homogeneity or reduce degree of non-uniformity of a system. These are achieved to another or from one part of the region to another part of the system region, this intend to effect distribution, intermingling and homogeneity of matter.

 

The material fed to mixer may be low or moderate viscosity liquids, highly viscous Newtonian or non-Newtonian liquid plastic and deformed solids like rubber or dry free flowing powders and the uniform combination of two or more material from a mixer may be either homogenous or heterogeneous.

 

Component of mixer

 

The component of mixer include

 

(a)        The shaft

 

(b)        The impellers

 

(c)         The vessel or tank

 

The Shafts:       These are the connecting rods that hold electric motor with a belt. The diameter of the shaft varies with the point of attachment in the driving motor and its length of the shaft varies with the height of the vessel. Shafts are used to transmit an induced motion from the driving motor to the impeller arrangement.

 

Also they are used in the location of impeller in an agitated vessel.

 

The Impellers

 

These are usually in form of flat blade turbine type either centrally located in the vessel or nearer to the bottom entry of the required material. They are also in axial flow or radial flow depending on the angle which the blade makes with the plane of the impeller rotation.

 

Vessel

 

Here the degree of uniformity or homogeneity operation is carried out, depending on the material involved such as solid and liquid or required and gas.

 

1.2    PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING MIXING

 

There are problems that are mainly encountered in this process the commonest one is the overtaking or mass swirling of the liquid.

 

Overtaking do occur in the mixing processing and it causes reduction in difference between the fluid velocity and the impeller velocity and thereby decreases the effectiveness of the mixing process. (Vortex occurs when there is gas liquid surface or phases).

 

If the mixing vessel or container is small in size overtaking can be prevented by installing the impeller of centre or at angle with the vertical or fixing the impeller to the side of the vessel as an angle.

 

These problems can be prevented by choosing an appropriate mixer and taking all the precautions in mixing to avoid overtaking.

 

Note: Vortex occurs when there is gas-liquid surface in mixing and is prevented by baffle.

 

1.3    PURPOSES/AIMS OF MIXING

 

Substances or materials are mixed for a number of purpose depending on the objectives of the processing step, they include:

 

(a)        Suspending solid particles

 

(b)        Blending miscible liquids

 

(c)         Promoting heat transfer between the liquids and a heat exchanger (e.g. coil or jacket).

 

(d)        Dispensing a gas through the liquid in the form of small bubbles.

 

(e)        Reducing partial agglomerate.

 

(f)          Contracting or dispersing immiscible liquids.

 

Mixers generally have a number of characteristics in common they are under the range of:

 

(a)        Change can mixers

 

(b)        Kneaders

 

(c)         Dispersers

 

(d)        Masticators

 

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF MIXING

 

Mixing is a critical process because the quality of the final product and its attribute are derived by the quality of the mixer. Improper mixing results in a non-homogenous product that lacks consistence in this respect to desire attributes like chemical composition, colour texture, flavor reactivity and particle size.

 

The wide variety and ever increasing complexity of mixing processes encountered in industrial applications requires careful selection, design and scale up to ensure effective and efficient mixing. Improved mixing efficiency leads to a shorter batch cycle time and operational costs. Today’s competitive production lines necessitate robust equipment that are capable of fast blend times, lower power consumption, equipment flexibility ease of clearing and a gamut of customized features. In addition to blending components many moderate mixers are designed to combine different process steps in a single equipment example, coating, granulation, heat transfer, drying, etc.

 

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