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EFFECT OF BODY FLUID EXTRACT OF GIANT AFRICAN SNAIL (ArchachatinaMariginata) ON DOG BLOOD PRESSURE
TABLE OF CONTENT
2.2 experimental Animals
3.2 effect of ARCHACYHATINA MARGINATA BODY FLUID EXTRACT ON BLOOD
PRESSURE OF DOGS
3.3 effect of ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA BODY FLUID EXTRACT ON ADRENALINE INDUCED HYPERTENSION
4.1 normal systolic and diastolic pressures control experiment
4.2 effect of ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA BODY FLUID EXTRACT ON ADRENALINE INDUCED HYPERTENSION
4.4 effect of Adrenaline and ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA BODY FLUID EXTRACT ADNIMISTERED TOGETHER
5.1 discussion and conclusion
List of tables and figures
Various work has been done on the pharmacological properties of the body fluid of giant African snail. (Tella1974) (Marquis 1974). The aims of this project is to further investigate the results obtained by these researchers. The effect of the giant African snail (Archachatina Marginata) body fluid extract on dog blood pressure was studied. Methanol (80%) was used for extraction. From the work done, 2g/ml of the snail body fluid extract caused as decrease in blood pressure. 1g/ml of the extract decreased adrenaline induced elevated blood pressure in dogs.
There are several species of giant land snails in Africa, The giant snail in Ghana is Achatina Achatina (Linne), but in Nigeria this might refer to Archachatina marginata (Swainson), and in East Africa it is Achatina Fulica Bowdich J. K. M. Hodasi (1984).
In west Africa, the edible giant land snails belong to two genera namely, Achatina Lamarck and Archachatina Albers. These two genera belong to a class of mollusca called gastropoda. They are found in south of sahara, countries of pacific ocean and throughout the forest zone of west Africa. These two genera are not considered pests in west Africa because of the high indiscriminate human predation rate, especially during the raining season period of the year. The most prevalent species of the genus Archachatina in Southern region of Nigeria and east of Dahomey is Archachatina (Calachatina) Marginata (Swainson). This particular species has a wide distribution that extends from Benin to Zaire and it constitutes important food stuff in the diet of the forest-dwelling people of West Africa. Graham (1978) stated that snails are important source of protein and iron in the diet of the forest-dwelling people in West Africa. It has also been recommended for treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia common in tropical countries. Ogbeide (1974)
Archachatina (Calachatina) Marginata is adapted for living on land and has produced several local variaties. (Bequaert, 1950) The head bears tentacles and eyes. The broad flat ventral foot is ell developed for locomotion. The substratum responsible for movement is lubricated by large mucus secretion from large gland in the foot. As a part of this adaptation, the mantle cavity has evolved into a long for respiration. There are also great variation in the height, texture and coloration of the shells. They live in moist areas and feed on terrestrial vegetation and ripe fruits. They are mainly nocturnal animals.
A number of pharmacologically active compounds present in the most classes of mollusa including possibly the edible giant African snails have been reported (Bacq et al 1935), (Nachmansoh 1941), (Erspame et al, 1951), (Blascho et al, 1957, and (Sweeny, 1941), (Erspamer et al, 1951), (Blascho et al, 1957, and (Sweeny, 1963). Archachatina species being a popular local food stuff are studied for their possible therapeutic value. There has been allegations that traditional healers claims that snail lowers blood pressure and acts as a hypnotic (Tella 1972). The previous related work done has been mainly on aspects of neurophysiology (Baxter et al, 1972). However, experimental studies carried out on the body tissue and body fluid of this mollusca species showed that the administration of these extracts to mice reduce locamotor activity, prolonged hexabarbitone sleeping time and protected the animals from death due to amphetamine induced toxicity (Tella 1974).
The presence of sedative principle in the cooked body fluid has also been supported by (Tella 1968). Histamine has been implicated in most of the nervous tissues of the land snail. (onwinde et al, 1969) (Erspamer 1948) (Erspamer et al, 1951) reported that extracts of the salivary glands of octopoda species of gastropoda contain a number of pharmacologically active substances suc has histamine, acetylcholine, tyramine, moschatine, octopamine and enteramine. Among all these substances, enteramine seems to have a marked action on the cardiovascular functions of several species of mollusca. (Erspamer et al, 1951) (Darryl Sweeny 1963) reported that dopamine is the principle catecholamine in molluscan ganglia. (Marquis 1974) reported that substance which elicited contractions on the isolated Guinea-pig ileum and rabbit duodenum was found to be present in the cooked body fluid of snail. Tha tthis spasmogen was blocked by atropine using an isolated smooth muscle preparations suggests that the substance may be acting at the muscarinic receptor. It is possible that the spasmogen is acetylcholine.
Anstasi et al, (1962) reported the presence of eledoisin apolypeptide compound in the posterior salivary glands of Eledone (a mollusca species). Eledoisin is an endocapeptide with activity on blood vessels and extrascular smooth muscles. This polypeptide (eledoisin) was found only in the posterior salivary glands of eledone (20 – 160ug/g). The salivary glands of Octopus Vulgaris and octopus Macropus lack eledoisin.
Eledone Meschata and Eledone aldrovandi (Two mollusca species belonging to the octopod cephalopoda) contain an active principle which is a powerful vasodilator and has a hypotensive action, and also potently stimulates some extravascular smooth muscles. (Erspamer 1949). This active principle was first referred to as moscyhatin but laterrenamed eledoisin in order to avoid confusion with the vegetable alkaloid moschatin from Achillea Moschata. This polypeptide has been isolated in a pure form and its amino acid composition and sequence have been fully elucidated. (Erspamer et al, 1962) Eledoisin is an endocapeptide having the following eleven amino acids. Pyr – pro – ser – lys – Asp – oh – Ala – phen – ileu – Gly – Leu – Met – NH2. The structure of eledoisin proposed has been confirmed by synthesis (Sandrin et al, 1962).
However, although eledoisin is suspected to be the depressor substance responsible for hypotensive effect, it is claimed that the effect on blood pressure following parenteral administration of the drug varies with animal species. (Ersamer et al, 1963).
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the bodily fluid such as blood or aqueus humour. It is expressed mathematically as the product of cardiac output and the total peripheral resistance. Blood pressure depends on age, sex, altitude, diet and body build of an individual.
Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure in the systemic arteries as blood is being ejected into the aorta by the contraction of the left ventricle. In the normal adult, the value of systolic pressure is about 120mmHg.
Diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure in the arteries during the relaxation and filling of the ventricles prior to ventricular contraction and ejection of blood. Its value in the normal human adult is about 80mmHg.
A persistence rise in diastolic pressure is regarded as an importance of an increased total peripheral resistance. The difference between the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure is the pulse pressure. Pulse is a series of pressure waves within an artery and it is caused by the ventricular contraction. It corresponds to heart rate.
Measurement of blood pressure can be carried out through many ways, example of which include the use of sphegmomanometer in human experiment. In this project involving the use of an experimental animal, a biograph which is connected to a transdidcer is used for monitoring the blood pressure.
The project therefore is aimed at investigation pharmacological properties of the body fluid extract of Archachatina – Marginata and then compare the results with p[revious reports that have been made in these related areas.
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