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EFFECT OF MODELS AND CHARTS ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BASIC SCIENCE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The development of Basic Science and Technology as a subject area occurred in Nigeria in the late 1960s, and its teaching and learning have since been entrenched in schools. A child they say is the father of a man. The education which the child receives today will shape his understanding and vision of life and this in turn will enable him to play a significant role in the making of himself and in the development of his fatherland. The child learns to perform and improve on the quality of the activities and lifestyle of his forebears, thus, pushing forward the frontiers of the cultural disposition of the people.
Developing students’ interest in science and technology is one of the objectives of science education. With global scientific and technological advancement occurring rapidly, declining students’ achievement in science courses is a worldwide concern that has led to basic science reform efforts on an international scale (Ozcan & Genc, 2016; Torres & Vasconcelos, 2017). Today’s society depends on development of science and technology (Uzunboylu & Tugun, 2016). Teachers are expected to device ways of improving the interest and achievement in science and science-related disciplines. No nation can afford to neglect basic science at any level of education and hope to thrive in any field of human endeavour. Basic science is vital for useful living in any society. It is at the Centre for producing resources necessary for socio- economic, scientific and technological development needed for advancement of any nation. Olatoye (2002) was on the opinion that basic science lays foundation for work in science- related fields by giving the students necessary information about certain knowledge, skills, and attitude. Much has been said about secondary school students’ poor performance in science generally and basic science in particular. Okoye and Okeke (2007) noted that performance in basic science has been declining over the years.
On the other hand the use of instructional materials may play a significant role in the academic achievement of students in basic science. There are several in materials which could serve as medium of instructions for teaching and learning. The study will focus on the use of models and charts on students’ academic performance in basic science.
The Basic Science is both content and process based. Some form of integration was the focus for basic science. The conceptual approach to content selection was adopted (Akpan, 1999). In organizing the content into teaching units, the spiral approach was adopted. By this, topics were to be treated at an elementary level in the first instance and later, develop further as the child’s mind mature and were able to grapple with such scientific process and knowledge.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The federal government of Nigeria has put in much effort to the improvement of the educational sector in Nigeria but there are still some limitations in the academic performance of students in basic science.The problem of pupils’ drawback in the science especially in the basic science at a higher level calls for a research into the area, at the grassroots level (primary school level). Some of the problems facing teachers and students in teaching and learning basic science are:
There is therefore need for a research to investigate the factors that affect teaching and learning of basic science. The study will try to determine the effect of the use of models and charts on the academic performance of students in basic science in Calabar municipality, Cross River State.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine the effect of models and charts on students’ academic performance in basic science. Other specific objectives of study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of study. The research questions for the study are:
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no significant relationship between the use of models and chart and students academic performance in basic science in Calabar municipality
H0: there is significant relationship between the use of models and chart and students academic performance in basic science in Calabar municipality
H0: Gender does not influence students’ academic performance in basic science for those who were taught by using charts and those that were taught using models
H0: Gender influences students’ academic performance in basic science for those who were taught by using charts and those that were taught using models
H0: there is no difference in academic performance between students that are taught using charts and those that are taught using models
H1: there is difference in academic performance between students that are taught using charts and those that are taught using models
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of models and charts on student academic performance in basic science will be of immense benefit to the entire secondary schools in Calabar in the sense that the study will educate the both the teachers and the students in the use of models and charts and its effect on students academic performance by comparing the academic performance of students that are taught using charts and those that are taught using models. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of models and charts on student academic performance in basic science will be carried out on three schools (Army primary school, and Eyo ita model primary school) in Calabar Municipality
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERM
Models of teaching: A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculums (long-term courses of studies), to design instructional materials, and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings based on Joyce and Weil (1980)
Charts:charts are materials used to make thinking visible as you record strategies, processes, cues, guidelines and other content during the learning process in basic science.
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