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EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON COMPUTER STUDENTS PERFORMANCE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, facts, principles, new information at hand etc. (Adeyanju, 1997) Learning can be reinforced with instructional materials of different variety because they stimulate, motivate and as well as arrest learners’ attention for a while during the instruction process. Instructional materials are learning aids and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools.
According to Akamobi, (1998) instructional materials are those materials used in classroom or workshops for instruction or demonstration purpose by students and teachers. Chauha (1973) saw them as actual equipment used as “hands on” process by learners in order to develop the degree of skills sought by the course of requirement. Examples of instructional materials include visual aids, audio aids, audio-visual aids, real object and many others. The visual aids in form of wall charts illustrated pictorial materials, textbooks etc. thus audio instructional materials refer to those that make use of the sense of hearing only like the radio, audio tape recorder etc. an audio visual instructional material therefore is a combination of devices which appeals to the sense of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion pictures and computers.
Instructional materials, we may gather that computer as an area of education deals with instructional problems and solutions through the use of various visual, audio and audio-visual materials and equipment. Problem of inadequate preparation of teachers to carry out reading instruction (Bello, 1980). This inadequacy translates in poor reading performance in computer and by implication other subject areas. Students in our various secondary schools equally lack the basic textbooks and other important materials that will support them in the learning of social studies at that level.
Teaching computer without relevant instructional materials leads to poor performance in other subjects. Instructional materials facilitate teaching and learning activities and consequently, the attainment of the lesson objectives. However, this depends on the adequacy and appropriateness of materials so selected. This in effect, means that learning resources are not selected haphazardly (Jiya, 1993). Indeed instructional materials to be used should be carefully selected by the teachers.
Brunner, (1961) in Mustapha (2005) also emphasized that oral reports require visual aids and improvisation. Improvisation is the art of providing the alternative or next to real thing when the real thing is not available or difficult to come by. It is therefore important that teachers of computer use teaching aids or improvise to make learning easy, enjoyable and permanent. They is therefore, great need for the teachers of computer who want to be effective at their work to be able to use all available instructional materials as well as improvise where they are not readily available.
The obvious facts remains that people remember those they have seen, touched and even played with. The primary task of teaching is to facilitate effective learning and understanding of the content materials (shoji, 2005). Instructional materials which appeal to all learners’ understanding of the language phenomena should be encouraged for use in our schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, an instructional material has been a useful tool in enhancing teaching and learning process of students. Inability for proper use of instructional materials by the teachers could be seen as one of the problems that might lead to poor performance of computer students. Lack of knowledge on the improvisation of instructional materials may also lead to poor performance of computer students. Finally, most research has been carried out on effect of instructional materials, but not even a single research has been carried out on the effect of instructional materials on computer student’s performance.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine the effect of instructional materials on computer students’ performance. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: instructional materials have no significant effect on students’ academic performance of computer students.
H1: instructional materials have a significant effect on students’ academic performance of computer students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the effects of instructional materials on computer student’s performance will be of immense benefit to all the schools in the country in the sense that it will enable the government to make available the various types of instructional materials that can enhance teaching and learning process. It will also enable the teachers to undergo training on how to effectively use instructional materials and to also improvise instructional materials in any area they find themselves. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research in this field of study.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of instructional materials is limited to computer student performance.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EffectsA change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Instructional MaterialsAre any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.
Students Performanceis the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
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