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FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS
Background to the Study.
Success in a business is a function of many variables, including the quality of human resources and infrastructural facilities available to the organization or institutions’ administrators to coordinate the various resources and activities of the enterprise toward objective accomplishment through management.
A successful coordination of institutional resources, both human capital and material resources is significantly characterizes by the development and application of strategic principles to the process of managerial decision making.
This requires effective and efficient implementation of objectives and functions of management and principles that underlie and facilitate effective coordination and utilization of resources towards the accomplishment of an institution objectives and mission statement.
Mankind involvements in management processes are as old as the history of creation. For instance, in African culture and traditions, it is learned in their existence to organize themselves into small groups either hunting, farming, building houses, fishing or dancing in the village square, with a group leader to direct and shows others how to work towards the accomplishment of groups goals. Once leaders are emerged and were accepted by the rest of the groups as their leaders, they wielded power and authority over the rest of the group, this is an aspect of management, hence it leads to attainment of specific group objectives. Management is dynamic phenomenon in human existence, be it in administration or institution.
Effiong, (1995). Said that management may be defined specifically as the process of getting things done through people by planning, organizing, directing, co-coordinating and controlling and their activities for the purpose of accomplishing objectives. Human resources is a major factor of production and because of the unpredictable nature of human being, arises the need to have a manager(s) to give direction and manage every persons in an organization.
Organizational effectiveness , the capacity of an organization to adopt, maintain itself, survive, and grow in the face of changing conditions, depends to a considerable degree upon how effectively its work force can be manage and utilized.
This is because the human resources of an organization which comprise all individuals regardless of their role and status, who are engaged in any of the organization’s activities are its most important and valuable assets.
Health field (2014) asserts that human resources management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on the recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in an organization.
The HRM department members provide the knowledge, necessary tools, training, administrative services, coaching, legal and management advice, and talent management oversight that the rest of the organization needs for successful operation. They are charged with over sight responsibilities to ensure that their organization appropriately build teams and inspires employees empowerment.
Tracey (2015) defines Human Resources as the people that staff and operate an organization as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization. Human resource is people who work for an organization in jobs.
Human resources are considered eminent, to the fact that people are an organization’s most important resources.
Tracey (2015) contends Human Resources is also the name of the department or functional area from which the employees provide HR service to the rest of the organization. People are an organization asset. Employees must be hired, satisfied, motivated, developed and retained.
Human beings or people need to be motivated or inspired towards successful implementation of ideal process. A number of theories have been propounded by behavioral Scientists on people behaviour towards carrying out responsibilities. One such behavioural School of thought, Douglas McGregor (1960) propounded two theories about the nature of human beings. These are theories Y and X.
According to Douglas Mc Gregor (1960) the average person naturally dislikes work and will avoid it if he can. Most people therefore need to be coerced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment to get them to work toward attainment of organizational objectives.
Thus, people have become a critical factor in the attainment of organization goals because all the organizational activities are determined by persons who made up the organization, either willing or coerced to work, without which infrastructural facilities used in the organization are unproductive on their own except for human effort and direction, hence good organizational structure does not guarantee enhance performance and increased productivity except with well managed human resources managers towards achieving the goal of the organization.
However, this is applicable to educational institutions and secondary school administration.
In the educational setting as an institution of teaching – learning process, teachers are key factors in the school system.
The quality of secondary school education depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties and job satisfaction.
According to Afe, (2001)Teacher have been shown to have an importance influence on student academic performance and also play a crucial role in the education set standards because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principle based on practice during interaction with students
The responsibility of school administrators or managers in the area of human resource management cover different aspects of teachers matters, this include appointment, promotion, retaining and successful planning to ensure that teachers are given opportunities for professional development to reflect on their job performance and service delivery.
The Success of school administration just like any other organizations or institutions is based on the establishment of good work environment geared towards the advancement of the productive capacities of the workers.
In order to attain the expected, there should be a leader who will coordinate, control and direct both human and non human resources applicable to the schools
Effiong, (1995) opined that human resource management refers to individual who perform leadership roles in an organization.
According to Olayote, (2004). In an organization the most important information as regards employees is a validated measure of his level of job satisfaction and the process of stimulating him to willingly perform better in the pursuit of organizational objectives. School administrators should do their best to make teachers satisfied in performing their task because poor motivation would certainly reflect on students academic performance and results.
Teachers have to be motivated on their job performance in order to be committed and impact positively on the teaching learning process at schools.
Nwogbo, (2001) stressed that therefore to ensure the attainment of both the organizational and individual goals, management and school administrators should relates rewards to task performance, rewards process must respond creatively to employee’s needs as well as those of the organization, when this is done effectively, job satisfaction will result.
The Willingness of the workers to attain the desired goals depends to a large extent on how appropriately they are rewarded as well as motivated on their job.
Kester, (2004) assert, then Lagos state teachers were not financially motivated they experienced undue irregularity and in the payment of their salaries and allowances “ it would stifle and discourage high teachers’ class room performance .
According to Afe, (2011). efficient management and investment in the teachers in terms of satisfaction, motivation and development is very important in a school system. The extent which and dedication with which teachers carryout quality teaching – learning process depends largely on their capability, commitment and motivation.
Human resource management in secondary school could be effective and impact positively in all and sundry and teaching – learning process as well as quality education if the secondary school human resources personnel would realized that human resources management (HRM) is:-
Statement of the problems
The concept of teachers’ job performance and increase in productively involves combination of various elements in work place which are dependent on and should be provide by the school management.
These various element includes factors such as good working environment, infrastructural facilities, instructional material, teaching aids, job satisfaction, motivation, rewards, staff training and development programs in order to ensure increase and greater productivity and improve quality of secondary school education standard.
By and large, it is impossible to please every individual teacher at work place.
However, some incentives such as promotion, bonuses, awards etc outside salary pay package or wage will help to satisfy and motivate the teacher and will encourage better performance among the teachers.
The responsibility for co-coordinating and managing the human capital and material resources for an education programme rests squarely on school management.
Unfortunately, education system such we have in Nigeria suffered from uncertainty, continuous change in education policies, aims and objectives.
Strike, Schools closure as a result of frequent change in government.
There is growing shortage of facilities, equipments and teaching materials and the system of schools enrolment in public secondary school are rapidly growing beyond effective and efficient control by the management capacities. Teachers are made to work in a very poor and unconducive teaching environment, hence teachers seem to be unhappy, Frustrated, uninspired and unmotivated in their chosen professional career.
However, the unsatisfactory state of secondary school education system in Nigeria particularly Lagos State education district IV had invariably led to the incidence of mass failure of students both internal and external examinations, unabated examination Malpractices, Cheats in examination halls by students.
Also constant strike actions embarked on by teachers, high attrition rate, poor work attitude by the teachers, are signs of the unsatisfactory State of academic moral and failing standard in the school system.
Untimely closure of Schools, examination malpractices, absenteeism, truancy and high turnover of teachers have been attributed to these problems of ineffective and in effective human resource management in most secondary schools due to lack of proper planning, directing, co-coordinating and absence of motivation and rewards
Purpose of the study
The general purpose of the study is to determine human resource management and secondary school effectiveness.
However, the study seeks to:-
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between human resource management functions and secondary school effectiveness.
Ho2: There is no significant influence of management styles on teachers, productivity and job satisfaction in public secondary schools.
Ho3. There is no significant relationship between motivation and teacher’s productivity in public secondary schools effectiveness.
Significance of the study.
The study is conducted to shed light on the working conditions of teachers in public secondary schools in Lagos state. The findings of the study can be useful to both private and public school Managers. A public secondary school management that understands the importance of its human resources in the successful and productive running of the school will ensure that the teachers are well managed, sustained and most utilized.
Moreover, it would benefit the government and its policy makers on education matters, recruitment, placement, training, welfare and development of teachers.
There will be well defined structures in terms of responsibilities, functions and roles each individual plays towards the success of the school. with a good structure and system of management, areas of weakness can be easily identified corrected and improved upon.
Finding from the study will be significant in terms of monitoring and assessing teachers’ professional conduct towards job description and satisfactory service delivery.
The teachers will through this study be able to evaluate themselves, in terms of dedication, commitment, discipline and job performance, try to improve on areas of deficiencies.
The general public and specifically parents will benefit from this study because of its contributions to quality education services.
Scope of the Study
The Study focused on the human resources management and secondary school effectiveness in Lagos State education district IV.
The study covered 10 public secondary schools in education district IV Yaba Local council Development Area of Lagos State.
Definition of terms
The following terms are defined operationally
Human Resources management: function within an organization that focuses on the recruitment of management of, and providing direction for the people who work in an organization.
Human Resource: the people that staff and operate an organization as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization.
Management: the process of getting things done through people by planning, organizing, directing, co-coordinating and controlling their activities for the purpose of accomplishing objectives.
System: it is the style or pattern adopted by school managers in carrying out their managerial functions.
Teachers: School academic staff who engage in the task of providing education for the students
Productivity is the average measure of the efficiency of teachers in their job performance.
Job Satisfaction: shows how satisfied and contended the teachers are with their job and welfare conditions
Motivation: the process of stimulating the desire and output of the teachers to be committed, continually interested on their job their job through rewards and incentives.
School Effectiveness: It constitutes peaceful environmental condition of the school, good students academic and behaviourial performance, staffs good attitude towards teaching, etc.
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