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ICT TRAINING IN NIGERIAN ARMY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

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ICT TRAINING IN NIGERIAN ARMY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval Page – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement-     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

List of Tables      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ix

List of Figures-   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

List of Abbreviation    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xii

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0    General Introduction- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1    Background-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2    Statement of the Problem-    –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.3    Objectives of the Study-       –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.4    Research Assumption –         –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5    Significance of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.6    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        7

1.7    Limitations of the Study-     –        –        –        –        –        –        8

References –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature Review-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.1              Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.2              Concept of Information –     –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.3              Concept of Communication –        –        –        –        –        –        12

2.4    Concept of Technology –     –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.5    Concept of Information Technology      –        –        –        –        15

2.6    Concept of Information Communication Technology      –        –        16

2.7    Previous Studies and Related works      –        –        –        –        17

2.8    Information Communication Technology (ICT), and Its

Application in the Nigerian Army for Operational Efficiency

and Effectiveness         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        19

2.9    Theoretical Framework-       –        –        –        –        –        –        21

2.10  Summary   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26

References          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Research Methodology         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.1     Introduction      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.2    Research Design-         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.3    Area of Study-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.4    Research Population-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.5    Instrument of Data Collection       –        –        –        –        –        33

3.6    Validation of the Instruments-      –        –        –        –        –        33

3.7    Method of Data Collection and Analysis        –        –        –        –        34

3.8    Weakness of the Study-        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.9    Summary- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        35

References          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    Data Presentation and Analysis-   –        –        –        –        –        37

4.1    Introduction-      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis –  –        –        –        –        –        37

4.3    Finding      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

4.4    Relationship between ICT and the Conduct of        Military

Operations –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

4.5    Problems and Challenges of Ict Training Affecting the

Operational Effectiveness And Efficiency Of The NA               –        50

4.5.1.          Inadequate Funding of ICT.          –        –        –        –        –        –        51

4.5.2 Poor Infrastructure      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

4.5.3 Inadequate Human Resource Development    –        –        –        52

4.6.   Prospect of ICT Training in NA for Operational Effectiveness

and Efficiency    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        53

4.6.1.          Systems Networking   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        53

4.6.2.          Improve Information Warfare Capability        –        –        –        –        53

4.6.3.          Medical Consultation  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

4.7    Summary –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

References          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        56

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Conclusion and Recommendations-       –        –        –        –        57

5.1    Conclusion-        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.2    Recommendations-      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        58

Bibliography      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60

Appendices

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Serial         Title table  Page No

(a)     (b)     (c)

4.1.1 Respondents Distribution by Rank        37

4.1.2 Participation in Operations  39

4.1.3 Level of application of Information Communication Technology in different Operations 40

4.1.4 Respondent Responses on Computer use        42

4.1.5 Application of ICT in the NA       43

4.1.6 Factors contributing to low level Application of ICT in the NA         45

4.1.7 Level of Awareness and Application of ICT in the NA    46

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Serial         Title of Figure    Page No

(a)     (b)     (c)

4.1.1 Bar chart showing Respondents Distribution by Rank     38

4.1.2 Bar chart showing participation in Operations         39

4.1.3 Bar chart showing level of application of Information Communication Technology in different Operations       41

4.1.4 Bar chart showing computer use in the NA     42

4.1.5 Bar chart showing the level Application of ICT in the NA        44

4.1.6 Bar chart showing factors contributing to low level Application of ICT in the NA    45

4.1.7 Bar chart showing level of Awareness and application of ICT in the NA    47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CAN –        Computer for all Nigerians.

CEP  –        Circular Probable Error.

DADP        –        Department of Automated Data Processing.

DICON      –        Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria.

ECOOG     –        Economic Community of West African State

EMR –        Electronic Medical Records.

FOB –        Forward Operation Base.

GOC –        General Officer Commanding.

GPS  –        Global Positioning System.

IA     –        Information Assurance.

ICT   –        Information and Communication Technology.

IT      –        Information Technology.

IW    –        Information Warfare

LAN –        Local Area Network.

NA    –        Nigerian Army.

NCW         –        Network Centric Warfare.

NHIS         –        National Health Insurance Scheme.

NITDA      –        National Information Technology Development Agency.

PER  –        Performance Evaluation Report.

PHCN        –        Power Holding Company of Nigeria.

PSO  –        Peace Support Operation.

R&D          –        Research and Development.

US    –        United States.

VSAT        –        Very Small Aperture Terminal.

WAN         –        Wide Area Network.

WWI –        World War I or II.

WWW       –        World Wide Web

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This research was carried out to examine the challenges and prospects of ICT training in the NA. The studies also have the objectives of looking at how the level of ICT training in the NA affects the efficiency and the effectiveness of her operations. A survey was carried out to ascertain the level of ICT in the NA using questionnaire and other literatures. The result of the survey showed that inadequate infrastructure, poor human resource development programmes and inadequate funding are the major challenges impairing the training and application of ICT in the NA.  The lack of military industrial complex as a result of low level of ICT training did not give the military the much needed spare parts that could prolong the lives of weapons, equipment and platforms. Although about 60 percent of respondents have knowledge of ICT in varying degree, majority of them use computer for world processing, games and e-mail. Recommendations were made for better training and application of ICT in the NA. These includes The AHQ should set up a verification team to access and ascertain the level of ICT training among the NA personnel and infrastructure available within the NA. The AHQ should also assist units and formations to subscribe to co-operate firms for intense programmes on ICT training. Finally there is need for AHQ to consider more funding in the area of ICT with a view to enhancing the skills of its personnel.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND

The armed forces of nations are required to protect the territorial integrity, contribute to internal security and uphold the constitution. The performance of these tasks warrants their being dispersed and commanders need to pass instructions to subordinates in order to direct the course of war, administer and for coordination with other Services. The means of passing these instructions had been a subject of concern to commanders and their subordinates.

Before the Industrial Age, instructions were passed on the battlefield through runners but visual signals endangered the lives of signalers and were inefficient for long distance messages (EJASL Vol 8, 2005:9). The industrial age brought a little relief as radios and telephones were used for communication between the rear and frontline troops. However, the radios were too bulky for mobile operation during World War 1 (WWI)  (Makane, 2000:28-30).

These cumbersome communication arrangements generated additional friction apart from the fog of war. These problems consigned commanders to the delays and uncertainties of war (Makane, 2000:14). Furthermore, commanders could not be sure of security of the messages (Boltz, 2007:84) Thus, command and control as a major problem during WWI because the technology available at that time could not offer the opportunity of frequent and immediate communication (Boltz, 2007:89).

The state of communication and information management prevalent during WWI was improved upon during WWII. The aeroplane became a platform for ground-to-air and air-to-ground communication using on board wireless radios. Apart from revolutionizing the war logistically, it relieved commanders of depending on bulky communication equipment (Thomas, 2008). After WWII, advanced countries such as the United States (US) continued to research in communication.

The US Department of Defence (DOD), thus created the Advances Research Project Agency Net (ARPANET) as an alternative means of communication in case of nuclear attack by the then Soviet Union in 1969 (UN,2005). The Internet was later discovered by Leonard Kleinrock, which provided e-mail and web facilities used for military and non-military purposes (Ajayi,2009). This gave impetus to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has now become a worldwide phenomenon. During the Gulf wars, the US and its allies displayed improved communication capabilities. For instance, their tanks used in the ground offensive were fitted with ground terminal equipment, such as cyclone antennae to establish a link with orbiting satellites. These satellite connections allowed the commanders in the tanks to share audio, voice and data with command centres practically anywhere in the world (MacGroddy etal, 1999).

There had been continuous and rapid technology advancements such as miniaturization thus making the production of smaller weapons and equipment possible (Richard, 2010). As many armed forces in Africa are struggling to acquire ICT infrastructure in the face of dwindling defence budgets, ICT assets are becoming obsolete within a short time due to technological advancement. Furthermore, the advanced countries have moved to the realm of stealth and precision weaponry as displayed in the Kosovo and Gulf Wars, an act that is creating a digital divide between the developed and developing countries (Eyo, 2001).

The use of ICT infrastructure is gradually being introduced into the Nigerian Army (NA). This is exposing NA personnel to a gamut of information and commanders could have access to field and long distance communications. This has bestowed some advantage on its communications such as battlefield transparency, intelligence gathering, propaganda, use of sensor, ICT-enabled weapon system and in Peace Support Operation (PSO). However, these advantages have their setbacks in the form of insecurity. The use of codes and firewalls by the NA may be inadequate and could open its information to hackers and other mischievous element in the virtual community. The consequences of the risks created manifest themselves in the possible failure of systems and assets whose incapacity or destruction would have a serious impact on national security.

During the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) operation in Liberia and Sierra Leone, NA personnel had the problems of communication insecurity, poor interoperability and was plagued by obsolete equipment (Dike, 2003). War fighting equipment such as mobile radar and simulators demand the knowledge of ICT for effective and efficient operations. It is therefore imperative that the problem and prospects of ICT in the NA be examined and probable solutions proffered in order to have adequate, efficient and effective communication support. These are the motivation for the study.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nigeria is still grappling with the fast rate of development of ICT, but the national policy on ICT had been put in place to steer its development. Despite the fact that the NA rely on communication for its routine, logistic, administrative, and operational activities, the ICT infrastructure and Knowledge through which it can be achieve is inadequate.13 According to Adewoye, “no military can develop except it develop its technology”.

Based on the foregoing, this study shall seek to proffer answers to the following:

  1. What is the relationship between ICT and the conduct of military operations?
  2. What are the level of ICT training and its application in the NA?
  3. What are the challenges and prospect of ICT training affecting the operational effectiveness and efficiency in NA?

 

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the relationship between ICT training and the conduct of military operations.
  2. Ascertain the level of ICT training and it applications in the NA.
  3. Examine the challenges and prospect of ICT training as it affects the operational effectiveness and efficiency of the NA.

 

1.4    RESEARCH ASSUMPTION

There is a general consensus that there is a relationship between ICT training in the NA and the efficiency and effectiveness of her operations. ICT training in the NA is the independent variable that determines the operational efficiency while effectiveness of the NA operations is the dependent variable.

 

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant due to the fact that it would contribute to the advancement of knowledge on ICT training in the NA. Also it is being carried out at a period of unprecedented global technological explosion, and the NA appears to be lacking.  Consequently, it would seek to redress the apparent technological stalemate, with particular reference to military operations in the NA.

The outcome of the study would be of assistance to scholars, researchers and students who wish to explore more in this field of study. It could thus be a useful guide to policy makers and planners at the Nigerian Army Headquarters (NAHQs) in establishing an integrated ICT system among all its divisions across the country.  It will also assist in making realistic projections for future applications of ICT and serve as reference material for a wide range of users especially defence information managers.

 

1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study shall cover the application of ICT training to military operations in the NA from the period of 1990 to 2010.  The period marked the development of military technological developments such as the internet, satellites and their global accessibility.  The Gulf Wars marked a defining moment in the history of military operations as the wars were truly digital war.  In Nigeria, there has being a concerted effort by the army to procure ICT systems, though the process remains inconclusive.  The army has however trained some officers in space technology to enhance its application and use of ICT.

 

1.7    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The use of data generated from a relatively small number of personnel of the NA to generalize for the whole NA constituted a limitation. This is coupled with the fact that ICT is relatively new to some members of the NA. However, questionnaire were shared to reflect a fair representation of the NA personnel hence it will not adversely affect the result of this study.

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