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IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFICULT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING TOPICS IN PHYSICS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
This research work was conducted to identify difficult topics in teaching and learning topic in senior secondary schools curricula. (A case study of SS3 curricula of physics). Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. A survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 16 teachers in the subject areas and 200 students were drawn from the 16 senior secondary schools of SS3 in Lagos. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and the data collected were analyzed using percentages, mean deviation and t-test for hypothesis. The finding of the study showed that, most of the teachers did not cover those areas when they were students, which made them to shy away from teaching those difficult topics in physics. The following recommendations were made:
The teachers should attend workshops, seminars and conferences. Resource personnel should be used to teach difficult topics, and they should be provided with adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of the difficult topics. The strategies identified by the study should also be used to stimulate the teaching and learning of physics and other subjects in senior secondary schools.
Recent changes in the Senior Secondary School curriculum in Nigeria particularly, the introduction of physics as a core subject to be taught in Senior Secondary Schools demand that specialist teachers be trained and provided with suitable resource materials including textbooks so that they can deliver their lessons effectively.
The absence of related instructional materials in Senior secondary schools, lack of trained physics teachers and other similar problems serves as barriers to the achievement of numerous objectives in physics. In view of this situation, the teaching and learning of physics tends to be ineffective. In the schools, non-specialist teachers are employed to teach physics and they apply the methods of teaching traditional subjects like Physics, Geography, Economic, Government and Civics. This kind of arrangement is obviously bad. It is like spreading seeds on a sandy soil. When this happens the seed will not germinate but rot away. In the same way, if this situation is allowed to continue the essential points or aims about physics will be lost.
Teaching and learning are usually taken to be major activities or process that take place in school, particularly, in the classroom. During this process however, there are lot of subjects being taught, especially after the introduction of Western Education (Formal Education) in Secondary Schools. These subjects such as Geography, Physics, Economics, Government etc focus on their specific areas and therefore not suitable for the development of a complete human being, hence the introduction of physics.
The introduction of physics in Britain was not an easy task. Obiadi, A. (1980) stressed that physics came about as a result of the missing link in Britain. The first world war (WW I) of 1914 and the European war happed to expose what was actually missing for human understanding learned on lesions from the wars, it became necessary for them to go back to schools to learn a lot about human relationship and what is meant to the society. For more than two decades, the study of physics went thought it gained a foothold in the 1950s committees were set up by the Ministry of Education to study about the necessary of studying physics. Various reports were submitted by the committees. Some of them were in favour while others strongly opposed its inclusion in the school curriculum for fear that it might replace other traditional subjects. Despite these oppositions physics went through successfully and was given a place in the school curriculum.
The physics of physics in Africa can be traced back to the London Oxford Conference of African Educators of 1967 which resulted in the Mombassa Conference of 1968.
Further still another conference was held at Queens College Oxford to discussed physics for Africa. Two years later after the Oxford London Conference, African physics programme was established in Nairobi, Kenya to coordinate and offer help to physics development in the continent.
It was resolved at the various conferences that Education in African continent needed readjustment to relate specifically to African culture. Hitherto it was observed by the conference organizers that the colonial educational system did not serve the interests of African. The result of the conferences brought about the setting out of physics curriculum which was meant to be adopted by all members countries including Nigeria according to their peculiar needs.
The teaching and learning of physics in the Nigerian institutions had a short but important physics in the school curriculum. Short in terms of number of years, but important because of the impact that its introduction had made in the Senior secondary school curriculum.
Amonoo, et at (1979) said that “the first serious attempt to develop physicsfor secondary schools in Nigeria was made but the staff of Comprehensive High School, Aiyetoro in 1965. initially the scope was limited to the then Western Region”. It was through the assistance of the Ford Foundation under its joints auspices with comparative education was adaptation centre (CESAC) that the Aiyetoro project was given a national scope. Through the publication, physics has now become a core subject in the Senior secondary school curriculum.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria National Policy on Education (1981) supports the inclusion of physics in the Senior secondary school curriculum.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Physics is one of the subjects being taught in our secondary schools. The teaching of physics has not been properly done because most of the teachers handling the subject has little or no sound knowledge concerning the subject. This also posed problems for the studies in terms of learning the subject.
This study is therefore designed to find out the problems of teaching and learning physics in our secondary schools, particularly in Lagos state and also find solution to the problems and suggest ways and method of improving upon the situation for the benefit of students, educators, school and society as well.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to identify and explain the problems of teaching and learning of physics in Secondary schools in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area, and how these problems could be eliminated so as to enhance effective teaching and learning of the students.
1.4 Research questions
i). Is there any significant difference between the use of instructional materials and the teaching of physics in schools?
ii). Is there any significant difference between the use of instructional materials in learning and the academic performance of students?
iii). Is there any significant difference between lack of qualified teachers in physics and the problems of teaching physics?
1.5 Research hypothesis
i). There is no significant difference between the use of instructional materials and the teaching of physics in schools.
ii). There is no significant difference between the use of instructional materials and the academic performance of studies in schools.
iii). There is no significant difference between lack of qualified teachers in physics and the problems of teaching physics.
1.6 Significance of the study
This research work is significant in many ways:
i). It will highlight the problems associated with the teaching and learning of physics in schools.
ii). The outcome of the study will also uncover the fundamental roles expected of the Government of our country.
iii). This study will also serves as a source for future research in its area of study.
iv). The outcome of this study will also be of immense values to the society in that it will seek to improve the interest of the learners with regards to their academic performance.
1.7 Limitation of the study
With due consideration of the factors of time, economic depression of the period geographical location of the target population the scope of the research is delimited to only Enugu educational zone.
This research work has a lot of limitation that are work mentioning. The problem of transportation to get information from transportation from teachers of different school; and the short time given for the completion of this project has been a great limiting factors.
LEARNING: Gaining knowledge or skill by studying or form being taught.
PROBLEM: This refers to a difficult situation.
PHYSICS: This is the study of man and the outcome of his interaction with his various environments.
STANDARD: A level of skill, ability or achievement by which someone or something is judged that is considered to be necessary or acceptable in a particular situation.
STUDENT: A person who is studying at a schools or college.
TEACHER: Someone whose job is to teach.
TEACHING: This is the process of imparting knowledge and making learners gain knowledge, skills and attitudes they needed to become responsible citizens.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definition
1.9 Limitations of the Study
2.1 Sources of Literature
2.2 The Review
2.3 Summary of Literature Review
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Research Sample
3.4 Measuring Instrument
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis
3.7 Expected Result
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Data Analysis
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Recommendations for Further Study
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