BEFORE YOU READ THE CHAPTER ONE OF THE PROJECT TOPIC BELOW, PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION BELOW.THANK YOU!
YOU CAN GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT OF THE TOPIC BELOW. THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N10,000 ONLY. THE FULL INFORMATION ON HOW TO PAY AND GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT IS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE. OR YOU CAN CALL: 08068231953, 08168759420
IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
1.1 Background to the Study
Nigeria’s foreign policy had been shaped by several past events leading up to the period in consideration. The years in which the image of the country was battered by several regimes of military rule and disregard to creating environment and fostering policies to enable growth had caused damage to the country’s economy.
General Ibrahim Babangida came into power August 27 1985, this marked the beginning of a new era in Nigerian foreign policy, this rule however punctuated Nigeria’s external relations which has been established from the time of General Murtala Mohammed in 1975 through to the regime of General Muhammadu Buhari which came to end 1985 (Fawole 1990:1).
The General Ibrahim Babangida regime brought Nigeria to a pariah state, which can be traced to when the election which was claimed to be free and fair was cancelled. This action ruined the image and reputation of Nigeria in the world as it resulted in a chain of reactions from the international community. These reactions further led to a sharp decline in the image of the country. Subsequently, the international community (United States, Britain and other European Union member states) imposed sanctions of various degrees on Nigeria. (Awe, 1996:28)
Chief Earnest Shonekan assumed power from the Babangida’s administration and was supposed to hand over to a democratically elected president. However power was quickly unsurped by General Sanni Abacha and he became the Commander in Chief. Abacha’s rule in Nigeria can be labelled as the dark years of Nigeria’s foreign policy or isolation years, as the period witnessed squandering of all the gains since 1960. Nigerian foreign policy since 1960 showed an established pattern and tradition of commitment by successive regimes to a purposeful foreign policy until the regime of Abacha. Abacha’s foreign policy until His demise is a preventive diplomacy, the killing of environmentalist Ken Saro Wiwa and other Ogonis, imprisonment of Chief M.K.O. Abiola and other human rights activist as well as some religious leaders coupled with unabated abuse of Human rights. The European Economic Community (EEC) the commonwealth of Nations imposed sactions on the Nigerian government. Different government imposed selective sanctions on Abacha. He did not allow for bilateral trade and economic relations with the western world, only states like India and other Asian states were allowed to carry out business in the cuntry. This distabilised the economy of Nigeria and gave Nigeria a very poor image in the international community. Abacha’s rigged policies had states opting out of bilateral relations with Nigeria. Babangida’s Structural Adjustment Programme came to an end. The government began to kill activist and everyone that posed a threat to the government thus allowing international institutions and states to impose sanctions on Nigeria economically this made Nigeria achieve a pariah status.(Fayemi, 1999).
Unfortunately, Abacha’s plans to remain in power came to an abrupt end with his death on 8 June 1998, General Abubakar Abdusalami, the head of military came to power on 9 June 1998. This development brought about a new look into the status of Nigeria in Africa and Abroad and was welcomed by the west, since the EU and the united states (US) lifted their selective sanctions and promised to support the new government in its transition programme. Abubakar’s intention to redeem the battered image and economy of the Nigerian nation was accepted by the west as the only condition for re-entering international institutions after spending some time in a cocoon. Abubakar’s government set out to win new friends and consolidate existing ones. (World Bank, 2000).
Despite his good intentions for Nigeria, General Abubakar had to hand over power to President Olusegun Obasanjo, in May, 1999, as Nigeria moved to a new face of civilian rule. President Olusegun Obasanjo inherited a nation with a battered image and without credibility externally. In his determination to regain Nigeria’s lost glory and re-integrate it to the civilized world, he engaged in a deft shuttle diplomacy across the major capitals of the globe. (Ikuomola, 2005:1).
In the light of a damaged foreign policy, the world got more globalised as a result of increasing trends in technology, liberalization of previously closed economies across the world, and reinstatement of more and more countries to civilian/democratic rule. This enabled more dependence of economies of countries on each other.
Nigeria became more dependent on the West as a result of globalisation and the advent of technology. The country has formulated several policies under the Obasanjo administration in order to take advantage of the teeming globalisation trends. In a globalised world, Nigeria as an emerging economy has little chance order than take advantage of the trends.
Several challenges limited the globalisation of the country and Nigeria had to formulate policies that would enable it to take advantage of globalization.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Nigeria’s foreign policy is weak and it has an economy that is based entirely on crude oil. (Adeniji, 1992:2). Its foreign policies suffered several military regimes, and mono-lateral decisions made by its rulers from 1984 to 1997. The decisions of the past military rulers regarding political, foreign relations, and economic policies have at most recent times been self centered. Nigeria’s dealings with other states of the world, has been hampered by several setbacks. The country annulled the 1993 transition election that was judged free and fair by the international community, Nigeria did not succumb to the pressure of the international community in acquitting Ken Saro Wiwa and the Ogoni eight (all nine of them were executed on November 10, 1995), and subsequently paraded a poor human rights record in several government related killings and unlawful arrests/indefinite detainment of opposition parties.
On the economic scene, the policies formulated by the governments were not targeted at the overall interests of the country. Many of the policies the governments formulated were only to satisfy individual crave for wealth acquisition and the level of corruption in the government affected the sincerity and perceived trust from the international community. Nigeria’s economy was also largely dependent on oil and this made the country highly vulnerable to several fluctuations in national/global trends and prices.
Nigeria’s neglect of the stance of Globalisation and its benefits over the years has also hampered developments and integration in the world economy. The state needs to take advantage of globalization and make positive the years of neglect being suffered as a result of neglect to integrate.
As a result, the Nigerian state was heading towards collapse and ailing relations with the global community. There was an urgent need to implement a total reform of all sectors and policies. The country’s foreign policies had to be reviewed alongside the economy and renewing the country’s image in the international community. There was breakdown of foreign relations with the commonwealth nations and the West. The impacts of globalisation on the economy were becoming minimally captured until the Obasanjo regime of 1999 when the country began active steps towards repositioning the entire country in the world.
The policies formulated were influenced by the effects of globalisation and its requirements, and the need for Nigeria to accept the world and move in the same direction with it. This posed several challenges for the government of Obasasnjo coupled with the fact that the extent of decadence was high in the system. A study of these effects and their interrelationships goes a long way in defining the way forward for the country and also evaluate the successes and failures of proposed/adopted measures.
1.3 Objective of Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of Study
The study reviews Nigeria’s return to civil rule in 1999 and how it led to improved country image abroad and allowed the country to take more active and productive roles regionally and on the global stage, Obasanjo however has travelled to many parts of the world to restore Nigeria’s poor economic implementation led to the breakdown of relations. However this study will contribute to the growing body of knowledge in globalisation and its linkage with foreign policy and will therefore aid researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.
1.6 Scope and Limitation
The study examines the linkage between foreign policy and globalisation under the Obasanjo regime in the period of (1999-2007). It is also limited in part to the information available from books, journals, books and internet resources. It shall be within the frame work of the economic policies with the international community.
1.7 Methodology of study
For the development of this work and its relevance or contribution to existing works, Articles, text books were consulted. Data which contributes to the development of this research was also gathered.
This research work will make use of historical research method. Hence, findings from secondary sources are sourced; the secondary sources include written documents such as government publications, documentaries and newspapers.
Added to these are descriptive accounts of experts on the impact of globalization on Nigeria’s foreign policy. Desk study will also be made with those considered authorities in the field of history, political science and international relations to complement the other sources. Furthermore, this research work depends largely on archival materials both online and offline. Official publications cited on the websites will also be used. Books, journal articles, conference proceedings, seminar papers and finally other related publications will be used in gathering secondary information for this research.
1.8 Theoretical Framework
For the purpose of this research we shall make use of the principle of dependency theory which appeared in the 1950s as a critical reaction to the conventional approaches to economic development that emerged in the aftermath of World War II. According to Dos Santos, 2002, there are two dependency theory traditions. The first is the Marxist influenced by Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy, and developed by André Gunder Frank with important ramifications in the works of Samir Amin, Theotônio dos Santos, Arghiri Emmanuel, and Aníbal Quijano. The second dependency tradition is associated to the Structuralist school that builds on the work of Raúl Prebisch, Celso Furtado and Aníbal Pinto at the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). The dependence theory believes that developing countries depend on the developed countries for support. The poorer countries are underprivileged.
The dependence theory shall be utilized in analyzing Nigeria and its developmental policies in the face of a globalizing world.
Both groups would agree that at the core of the dependency relation between center and periphery lays the inability of the periphery to develop an autonomous and dynamic process of technological innovation. The lack of technological dynamism, and the difficulties associated with the transfer of technological knowledge are the main cause of the underdevelopment of the periphery with respect to the center. The main contention between the two groups was ultimately related to the possibilities of economic development in the periphery.
The existing wide disparities between the developed and the underdeveloped economies make globalization a tool for dampening the industrialization process, and by extension, retarding the growth and development of underdeveloped economies. Trade liberalization, the cardinal instrument of globalization ensures that industrialized countries have access to world markets, which enhances further industrialization of industrialized countries while incapacitating the industrialization process of the underdeveloped economies. (Omotere, 2010).
HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK
PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).
HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)
After paying the appropriate amount (#10,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to
08068231953 or 08168759420
(1) Your project topics
(2) Email Address
(3) Payment Name (If you made a transfer)
(4) Teller Number (If you made a direct deposit)
We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert
Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI
Account Number: 0046579864
Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI
Account Number: 2023350498
FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:
08068231953 or 08168759420
Our other research websites: