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INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SANDWICH STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
The predominant means of instruction has traditionally been through verbal medium, either as spoken lecture or written text. As more instructional resources of many different media types become available to students, especially the sandwich ones through the internet, there is a need for educators to understand when these sources may be used effectively for instruction, as well as a need for students to develop an additional set of literacy skills in order to learn from these sources (Anyakoha, 1990).
Tyner (2000) argued that in the information age, the concept of literacy has been simultaneously broadened and splinted into many literacies in part because “the all purpose word literacy seems hopelessly anachronistic, tainted with the nostalgic ghost of a fleeting industrial age. The term information communication technology is among several terms that have been associated with literacy to emphasize that literacy extends beyond reading and writing the alphabetic codes, and should include a variety of audio-visual forms of representation. Associating information communication technology with the literacy also highlights a belief among many scholars and educators that conceptions of literacy or studentship and how it is developed should not focus exclusively on printed materials but should include electronic media that have moved into the mainstream of communication especially at the end of the twentieth century.
Implicit in these views is that research and practice related to literacy must be transformed to accommodate new ways of accessing, process and using information by sandwich students generally by and the sandwich students in particular (Aaron, 1997). Information encompasses a wide range variety of things ranging from oral and printed words, figures, statements, files and documents to such intangible elements as sound signals, rays and waves. Whatever the form information takes, the essence of information is that it conveys messages.
UNESCO (1979), defined information simply as “set of data recorded in a methodical manner” which includes: any item of knowledge capable of facilitating the operation of a system; and any numerical or alpha-numerical quantity processed by the machine, the aggregate of information constitutes the data and results of a problem. According to (Adamson, 1998), claims the term information technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge. Information communication technology , therefore can be defined as the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoral, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication.
Telecommunication is a special kind of communication in which information is conveyed over a long distance. Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating information than processes involving paper. In the recent time, sandwich students, most especially, have benefited from the use of information communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television, telephone and the internet as a veritable sources of information in their academic career or pursuit.
Uzoma (1999) opined that sandwich students, andmost adolescents use the information communication technology especially the internet to gather vital educational information or materials, register their courses of study, check their results of JAMB, NECO, GCE, POST UME etc. Onuoha (2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education more simple and easy for students especially, the students in the sandwich studies at University of Lagos. Onuoha claimed that information communication technology has helped sandwich students in many ways such as project writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies. Onuoha further stated that information communication technology has created a remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students mostly the sandwich students who are in the habits of using the computer and the internets to carry out faster storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school.
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist sandwich students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, sandwich students achieve high academic laurels in school, especially at the University of Lagos.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Information communication technology as an effective means of storing, accessing, retrieving or collecting vital information is often times used by sandwich students to carry out their educational activities. With the advent of information technology, sandwich students access information that lead them to successful academic and professional achievement. Nevertheless, information communication technology seems to have corrupted students, especially, the adolescents who are in sandwich studies. For instance, some sandwich students are often seen glued for hours to the television and the internet watching or viewing pornographic films or pictures that are capable of bending their minds and distorting their dispositions. Studies have shown (Asobie, Achizie and Anywanwu., 1995), that some sandwich students who browse the internets often are more corrupt than those who do not.
Sandwich students who use the internet often or watch the television involved in sexual promiscuity, examination malpractices, stealing and other vices or indisciplines that are always carried out in the school, especially at the University of Lagos. In recent times, many sandwich students have been caught using Global System Mobile Network (GSM) phones to carry out or perpetrate examination malpractices; to connect friends and associates in crimes.
Both adults and students are found to use the GSM phones to tell assorted kinds of lies and deceit in the larger society and this has made corruption to be well rooted in the society in which we live. The more advanced manner in which television programmes are aired and commendable, but many of the programmes show very bad and aggressive films and many sandwich students watch them after which they start acting what they have seen and this has affected their psyche negatively.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to carry out an investigation on the sandwich studentship and information communication technology utilization at University of Lagos.
Other purposes include the following:
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study:
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The undermentioned hypotheses were tested in this study.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Sandwich students will benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it help them to be able to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it. Teachers will find this study beneficial because with the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it. With the study also, information communication technology and their functions.
This study will assist the school authority to be able to know more about information communication technology and its functions especially in the life of the sandwich students. The recommendations of this study will enable the school authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria. The society will benefit from this study, because it will assist the society to be information communication technology friendly due to the advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more about information communication technology and its functions in the world today.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will cover the influence of information communication technology utilization on sandwich students learning outcomes at University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Operational terms were be defined in this study thus:
Information technology – This refers to the application of scientific knowledge. Information communication technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoal, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication, Asiobie, (1989).
Sandwich Studenship – This refers to students who are involved in sandwich studies. Students who were admitted without Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB).
Utilization – Putting something in use or utilizing.
Assessment – This refers to the act of assessing, the values of amount at which something is calculated, a judgment or opinion.
Evaluation – To calculate the value or degree of.
Accessible – This refers to get or get into, to or at. Easily persuaded or influenced.
Acquisition – The act of acquiring something or someone.
Message – A broken or written piece of information passed from one person to another; the important or central idea etc.
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