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ROLES OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PROMOTING NATIONAL SECURITY

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ROLES OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN PROMOTING NATIONAL SECURITY

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background of the study

Political science has been an academic discipline ever since Herbert Baxter Adams first coined the term in 1880 at Johns Hopkins University.  The period from the ancient Greeks thru the Arab golden age thru the Italian Renaissance and on up to the English Enlightenment is regarded as the “classical” era in political theory.  The discipline is recognized as having many fields and subfields.  It shares a close working relationship with other disciplines, especially sociology, economics, history, anthropology, psychology, and statistics.  It has long been a field tolerant of diverse ways of doing social science research.  In fact, normative (value-laden) deliberations are usually tolerated (it is often said that international law itself is a normative discipline) which means that relevance (in being able to affect policy decisions) is more important than rigorously following the traditional scientific method of empirical verification and statistical interpretation.  A better way of saying this is that political science is more concerned about modes of inquiry than research methods.  Some background on methodology may be helpful, and any reading of a good book on modes of inquiry or methodology would help with understanding (e.g., Greer 1970; Cook & Campbell 1979).  For familiarity with specific analytic methods for studying international relations, see Paul Hensel’s IR data site.  Below is a list of the current fields of study in political science.

  • civics and comparative politics — the comparison of different forms of government; also includes what some call the fields of regional studies, area studies, and (to a lesser extent) cultural studies
  • international relations — the study of the dynamics of economic, political, and social relations between state actors; also includes transnational issues (like terrorism and the environment); field is rapidly moving toward the study of substate or intrastate actors
  • political economy — technically the study of relationships between buying and selling to laws, customs, and governments, but most commonly defined as the study of how political institutions and the political environment influence market behavior; contains much Marxist-inspired thought; tries to understand the normative implications of economic structures and theories
  • political philosophy — a “history of” field, for the most part, which studies normative questions about the goodness of things such as government, power, justice, wealth, ideology, and social change; contains much Marxist-inspired thought, but more liberal philosophers are prevalent; criminal justice as a academic discipline of study is ultimately derived from this field
  • political psychology — the study of political behavior by voters, lawmakers, organizations, and associations; in recent years has moved into the study of elites and/or the profiling of political leaders
  • political theory — involves the study of normative questions of government, ideology, regimes, social movements, and much of what political philosophy studies; uses comparative approaches toward theories of the state and/or public administration; includes many “lost” subfields such as political geography, peace and conflict studies, and/or security studies
  • public administration — studies the implementation, determination and outputs of public policies; seeks to explain the role of political structures, bureaucratic politics, and interest group activity
  • public policy — studies policy making by governments, particularly those policies (laws, plans, actions, behaviors) that involve choices, are characterized by a government claim to authority and responsibility, and have import over a large group of individuals
  • foreign policy — studies the motivations and processes that animate or facilitate the processes of decision making at the boundary or intersection of the domestic environment and the external (or global) environment, or in the case of Chittick (2006), those value orientations (security, economic, and community) which underlie perspectives and theories

National security (and to some extent, the whole field of foreign affairs) can be described as practice in search of a theory.  Why is theory important?  In political science, the simple answer is to better inform policy.  In sociology and psychology, the answer is to provide puzzles which unlock what makes the best sense out of ordinary and/or extraordinary phenomena.  In law (and especially constitutional law), the answer is to find out why you are there trying to resolve a dilemma and if the solution resonates well with all that has gone before.  In criminology and criminal justice, the answer is to predict as well as explain or understand (verstehen) unpredictables.  There are many good reasons to have theory, and perhaps the best reason to have one in national security law is to fine-tune what works, is known to be true, or makes the widest possible application of the better ideas in behavioral and social science.  We shall see, however, that the behavioral and social sciences are not the only contributors, and are, in fact, probably minority contributors in light of “traditionalist” (or non-scientific) approaches which are based on idiosyncratic, highly personalized insights.

  • Statement of the problem

There may have been previous researches in this subject. This work gives further explanations and analysis in roles of government agencies in promoting national security.

 

  • Objectives of the study
  1. To understand the impact of activities of government agencies in promoting national security in Nigeria
  2. To understand the relationship between activities of government agencies and the promotion of national security in Nigeria

 

  • Research questions
  1. What is the impact of activities of government agencies in promoting national security in Nigeria?
  • What is the relationship between activities of government agencies and the promotion of national security in Nigeria?

 

  • Research hypothesis

H0: There is no relationship between activities of government agencies and the promotion of national security in Nigeria

H1: There is a relationship between activities of government agencies and the promotion of national security in Nigeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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