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SCHOOL ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT AND TEACHERS’ EFFECTIVENESS IN EDUCATION
This study examined organisational support and teachers’ effectiveness in public secondary schools in Education District VI, Lagos state. A number of related materials both of empirical and theoretical importance were reviewed. Five research questions and five research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the population for this study comprised all the teachers in public secondary schools in Education District VI, Lagos State. Multi-stage (two stage) sampling procedure was used to select 315 participants for the study. The researcher administered 315 copies of questionnaire with the help of three trained research assistants, but 300 copies of the questionnaire were returned and good for analysis. The instrument used to gather information was questionnaire and the data were analyzed using percentage, frequency count and Chi square statistical tools. Some of the findings of the study are: career development, facilities, incentives packages, participation in decision making and work design influence teacher effectiveness. Based on this the study recommended among others: Development of National Strategy on the education sector and empowering the federal and state ministries to play to central role of coordinating all government and non government organisational support services to the educational sector in Nigeria.
Background to the Study
Organisations either public or private are established to accomplish specific goals and objectives. And for these goals and objectives to be achieved, the human resource should be seen as one of the most crucial factors. For instance, in school organizations, without the teachers (and the supporting staff) the stated goals and objectives of education are as good as dead. Employees in contemporary society are expressing a strong desire to pursue more than just a job and these employees look out for the Organisational support that will be provided by the school organization.
Organisational support has proved beyond reasonable doubt that this is an important phenomenon in organisational behaviour because it leads to positive results such as employees’ effectiveness in the workplace (Baranik, Rolling & Eby, 2010). Like the roots of a tree that support the whole tree, Organisational support caters for all the employees in the organisation in terms of resources and personal needs. Many authors (Ferris, Brown & Heller, 2009; Zagenczyk, Scott, Gibney, Murrell & Thatcher, 2010; Baranik, Rolling & Eby, 2010) have tried to define Organisational support in various ways. Organisational support refers to the extent to which the organisation values their contributions and cares about their wellbeing (Arshadi, 2011). Bilgin and Demirer (2012) assert that Organisational support is about rewarding and meeting the socio-emotional needs of employees.
According to Olaleye (2014), Organisational support refers to the part of economic environment of industry and business. It consists of authorities and organisations whose decisions and active support in form of laws, regulation, financial and non-financial help brings a lot of changes in the functioning of any business. The organisations could be government owned, statutory, semi autonomous or autonomous. It is the government or government supported organisations authorized to take up certain activities – financing, marketing, project preparation and employees’ training in order to promote industrial activities in the state.
According to Rhoades and Eisenberger (2012), employees perceive that the institution supports them if resources are provided voluntarily rather than after pressure from trade unions and government regulations on health and safety. Similarly, Chiang and Hsieh (2012) assert that perceived Organisational support is the belief that the employer cares about the needs of employees. It involves mentorship activities such as employee counselling, providing workshops for employees, developing the employees in terms of academic advancement, making sure the teachers have adequate resources in the classroom, employee protection, coaching employees, ensuring friendship among employees and role modelling (Baranik, Roling & Eby, 2010).
However, research by Cloete (2011) shows that, owing to difficulties with policy issues of equity, efficiency, democratic participation, development and massification of higher education against declining resources, teachers and other employees tend to feel that their needs are not sufficiently catered for. This has recently resulted in numerous strikes by teachers at various organisations of higher learning in most countries in the world.
Given that higher education is now acknowledged as a major driver of the information-knowledge system (Cloete, 2011), educational organisations are urged to support teachers and other employees by creating career opportunities through various professional development initiatives and providing time for such activities (Amin, 2013). As Bilgin and Demirer (2012) reported, the components of perceived Organisational support include training, adequate instructional facilities, autonomy, job security, job safety, recognition, pay, promotion, fairness, and work conditions. Organisational support (organisational support) has proved beyond reasonable doubt that this is an important phenomenon in organisational behaviour because it leads to positive results in the workplace. The ever-increasing importance of Organisational support to teachers cannot be over-emphasised. In particular, Organisational support has been used to enhance teachers’ effectiveness.
Teachers’ effectiveness are teachers’ actions that are relevant to the goals and objectives of school organization. Similarly, Ali and Ahmed (2009) sees teachers’ effectiveness as a teacher’s behavior demonstrated or something done by the teacher for achievement of the school goals and objectives and it is assessed through operational performance outcome and the quality of services rendered by teachers in and out of classroom. Therefore, it can be concluded that teaching effectiveness is an output that is obtained due to the efforts of the school teachers.
School managers can influence cohorts and performance of teachers indirectly through creating an environment in which teachers can work effectively; developing a suitable philosophy that helps teachers shape their commitment towards school organizational goals, and articulating strategy (Alkhaliel, 2013). Blanchard and Witts (2009) argue that when school organisations fail to take the time to actively recognize and reward good performance, the desire for the job weakens with every unrecognized triumph.
Teachers’ effectiveness feedback motivates the employees’ desire to do well. Agarwal (2008) asserts that when teachers are involved in making decisions and participate in the execution of transformations that affect them, they implement transformations faster with higher performance compared to teachers who are only informed of the transformation. Similarly, Across (2005) contends that teachers do not perform well in conditions where autonomy is not guaranteed, particularly when teachers have gained adequate skills for working independently.
Statement of the Problem
Teachers are the key drivers of the prosperity and success of any educational institution and attainment of educational goals and objectives. When teachers are employed, they will have a set of needs, wishes and previous experiences which make up for total job expectations. Educational institution’s reactions and responses to these needs will produce negative or positive attitude among personnel toward their job.
In view of the current poor state of Nigerian education, this study sought to identify the Organisational supports that influence teaching effectiveness. In doing this an attempt was made to establish relationships between selected Organisational supports and secondary school teachers’ effectiveness.
The choice of these Organisational supports is based on the fact that Nigerian secondary education is threatened with adverse economic conditions and unhealthy intellectual environment, that the fundamental effectiveness of the organisations to produce competent, skilled and employable graduates is in doubt. The thrust of this study is to ensure that secondary education in Nigeria is restructured to be able to meet the challenges posed by the demands of the 21st century and beyond and to be able to fulfill its mandate of producing skilled manpower for national development.
For the purpose of this study, the researcher investigates the influence of Organisational support (in terms of career development, facilities, incentives packages, participation in decision making and work design) on teachers’ effectiveness in public secondary schools in Education District VI of Lagos state.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study was to examine organisational support and teachers’ effectiveness in public secondary schools in Education District VI, Lagos state. Specifically, the study aimed:
The following research questions are raised to guide the study:
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study contribute to the general knowledge on Organisational support and teachers’ effectiveness in public secondary schools. The findings also contributed to information that can be used in organizing seminars and workshop on the improvement of Organisational support components which will help to improve medium of instruction for all subjects and, also help in the long run of effective school system.
Information from the study will improve appreciation by policy makers where it will help in formulation of Human Resource Policies based on Organisational support programmes in relation to human capital development for education and performance management. The study serves as a source of information to policy makers as secondary education are envisioned to play a key role in the realization of educational goals and objectives. The findings of the study shed light on how secondary education could enhanced performance through empowering their human resource, having proper strategies and enabling structures, transformational leadership and creating an enabling work environment.
The findings of the study have also extended knowledge and opened new frontiers in the field of education. It will also add to the increasing body of theoretical knowledge in Educational Management. The findings will enhance replication of similar studies in different context and thus fostering comparative studies. The study has also provided a basis of future research.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of the study focused mainly on organisational support and teachers’ effectiveness. It covers all the teachers of public secondary schools in Education District VI of Lagos state. The study focused on the following variables: career development, facilities, incentives packages, participation in decision making and work design.
Operational Definitions of Key Terms
The operational definitions of terms of the study are:
Career development: This is a training that takes place in the school for class teachers in order for the teachers to be acquinted with up to date teaching methods. Usually, a professional trainer serves as the course instructor using hands-on training often supported by formal classroom training.
Decision-making: It is taken in this work to mean behaviour that is exhibited in selecting the best course of action among several alternatives by the school manager by carrying along the school teachers.
Facilities: These are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information into students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies, videos, video discs, workbooks, and electronic media including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD-ROMs, and online services.
Incentives packages: It is the benefit that arises or given to teachers from performing a task, rendering a service or discharging a responsibility.
Teacher’s effectiveness: This is a school work related activity expected of a teacher on how well the activity was carried out in a secondary school. This is a variety of different aspects of teaching such as; subject mastery, effective communication, lesson preparation and presentation.
Work Design: This is a new and innovative method of work arrangement. This method lets 2 or 3 people share a 40-hour working week (full-time) between them. For instance one of them works 8 a.m.-12 noon and the other works 1p.m. -5 p.m. or each person works on specific day’s full time.
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