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SOCIO PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE AND IMPACT ON ECONOMICS STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL
1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
From the conclusion of facts on psychology, social psychology is the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
The expressions of knowledge in the real context of relating thought, feeling and behaviors is a greater extent determine student’s performance in school and their adjustment to life. The poor performance of students in economics examinations research review in recent times could be recognized to the changing life pattern in some families looking at the Nigeria economy on inflation rate system, which has render families handicap to meet up with their responsibilities of ensuring a healthy and literate family. The structure of family in terms of size, numbers and income of the family in which a child grows affects his intellectual development; large-size family can reduce the economics student academic achievement due to less or no attention. The problems that arise in families in assisting on assignment, school fees payment, presence in Parent Teachers Associations and many more of influence. The socio-psychological background of a family impacts negatively on the unpleasant performance of the economics student. Family financial resources, which are linked with parents’ occupation and educational attainment, often imply increased learning opportunities both at home and in school. Better-educated parents can contribute to their children’s learning through their day-to-day interactions with their children and involving themselves in their children’s school work.
Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek οἰκονομία (oikonomia, “management of a household, administration”) from οἶκος (oikos, “house”) + νόμος (nomos, “custom” or “law”), hence “rules of the house(hold)”. Political economy was the earlier name for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested “economics” as a shorter term for “economic science” that also avoided a narrow political-interest connotation and as similar in form to “mathematics”, “ethics”, and so forth.
The focus of the subject is the socio-psychological influence and impact on economics students’ academic achievement at secondary school behave or interact and how economies work and influence them. Consistent with this, the research distinction is between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the behavior of basic elements in the economy, including individual feeling, behaviour (such as households and firms or as buyers and sellers) and markets, and their interactions. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including unemployment, inflation, economic growth, and monetary and fiscal policy.
An attitude may be defined as a predisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given attitude object (Oskamp and Schultz 2005). The focus of this project is on socio psychological influence and impact on economics student’s academic achievement at secondary school level in ede south local government area of osun state, The term ‘subjects’ refers to both theory and laboratory classes in secondary school. Thus, the scope of the present study was limited to Economics as experienced by students in secondary school rather than out-of-school experiences obtained from external sources such as the media, museums, field trips and friends. Attitude towards Economics or science denotes interests or feelings towards studying Economics or science. It is the students’ disposition towards like or ‘dislike’ science while attitude in science means scientific approach assumed by an individual for solving problems, assessing ideas and making decisions. Student beliefs and attitudes have the potential to either facilitate or inhibit learning (Yara, 2009).Many factors could contribute to student’s socio psychological influencing the studying of science (Economics). Several studies (including Wilson 1983; Soyibo, 1985;Berg 2005; Adesoji, 2008) report that students’ positive attitudes to science correlate highly with their that, in general, the attitude of Nigeria students towards the basic sciences tend to decrease in the order, Biology, Economics, Physics and Mathematics. Defiana (1995) found that using integrated science environment activities improved high school student attitude toward and awareness about the environment. Armstrong and Impara (1991) in their studies determined that fifth and seventh – grade students using nature score as a curriculum supplement developed more positive attitudes than those who did not. Abimbola (1983) reported that students exposed to a programmed instruction recorded higher and more favourable attitude towards mathematics. Ayelaagbe (1998) also reported a more positive attitude of studies after exposing them to self learning strategy. Similar results were obtained by Udousoro (2000) after using computer and text assisted programmed instruction and Popoola (2002) after exposing students to a self learning device. Popoola(2008) also reported that students attitudes and interests to sciences, especially Agricultural science correlate highly with their science achievement. Halladyna and Shanghnessy (1982) and Adesoji (2008) have concluded that a number of factors have been identified as related to students’ attitude to science (Economics). Such factors include; teaching methods, teacher attitude, influence of parents, gender, age, cognitive styles of pupils, career interest, social view of science and Scientifics, social implicating of science (Economics) and achievement.
According to Eweniyi (2005), diverse factors are competent of influencing the academic achievement of a student in secondary school. Some of the factors may be the student’s internal state (intelligence, the state of health, motivation, anxiety, emotions etc.) and their environment (availability of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories). Analyzing of these factors has created numerous conclusions by researchers. For example, according to Clemens and Oelke (1967) and Emeke (1984) have recognized the cause of poor academic performance to a combination of personal and institutional factors. Personal factors relate to the individual’s intelligence, knowledge and ability. Also while institutional/ socio psychological factors are family or parental influences, societal influences, institutional influences and school related factors – student/lecturer relationship, teacher associated factors, accommodation and living conditions. From the fining of Sogbetan (1981) and Hassan (1983) among others have examined the causes of poor academic achievement among secondary school students, Some of the factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habit, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, low self-concept, low socio-economic status of the family, poor family structure and anxiety. The consequences of these include indiscipline in schools and low level of educational standard.
The studies thus reviewed suggest that there is a relationship between attitude and methods of instruction and also between attitude and achievement; and that it is possible to predict achievement from attitude scores. What is needed to complement the results of such studies however is the nature of relationship between students’ attitude and factors related to teaching and learning of Economics? Results of these types of study are likely to broaden our knowledge as how we can influence students’ attitude positively towards Economics as a subject in secondary school, Nigeria.
1.2PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the socio psychological influence and impact on economics student’s academic achievement at secondary school level in ede south local government area of osun state. The study is also designed to make various recommendations for teachers and other stakeholders on how to arouse or improve student’s attitudes in the subject.
1.3STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Despite the greater number of Economics graduates produced by our tertiary institutions; every year there are numbers of secondary schools where Economics teachers are not competent in the teaching of the subject. Also, the attitude of the students in secondary schools towards Economics as a profession is not encouraging. This makes the teaching of Economics ineffective and inefficient even where there are competent teachers to teach. It is on this premise, that this study is designed to examine the socio psychological influence and impact on economics student’s academic achievement at secondary school level in ede south local government area of osun state
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to investigate socio psychological influence and impact on economics student’s academic achievement at secondary school level in Ede south local government area of Osun state, the following questions were raised:
1.5SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was limited to secondary schools in Ede south local government area of Osun state only. Based on the time frame and financial constraints in covering all the secondary schools in the Local Government, the study was also limited to the students in Senior Secondary Schools (SS Class)
The names of the schools are:
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at looking at the socio psychological influence and impact on economics student’s academic achievement at secondary school level in ede south local government area of osun state. The results of the study is hoped to assist Economics teachers to develop new learning experience for the students and reorganize these learning experience in some ways enough to arouse the interest of the students. It would be of good assistance to teachers to create a habit were they would improve on the obsolete teaching methods, use adequate, modern and relevant instructional materials and textbooks at their disposed to the fullest. This study may also assist the students to improve their attitude towards the study of the subject. Finally, the government and parents would benefit from the study of their roles as these would be highlighted at the recom\mendation column.
1.7ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
Based on the study, the following assumptions were made. Secondary school students constitute a valid source of data needed in the study. Also, that the respondents will give valid and unbiased responses to the questionnaire items and that the samples drawn will be representatives of the population
1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS
Economics:- This is a science subject taught in the Senior Secondary Schools.
Learning:- This is the process of acquiring knowledge in Economics among Senior Secondary School Students.
Attitude:- This refers to students’ positive mind to the study of Economics.
Teaching:- Transmission of the knowledge of Economics to Senior Secondary School Students. Instruction
Materials:- These are aids used in teaching and learning of Economics in Senior Secondary School.
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