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THE EFFECT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING MEDIA ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This study examined the effect of teaching and learning media on the performance of secondary school students in Biology, Lagos. The study adopted survey method using simple random sampling technique in selecting two hundred respondents (thirty teachers and one hundred and seventy students) from Yaba, Mushin, Surulere, Bariga and Ebutte-meta in Lagos. Simple percentage was used to analyse the respondents’ demographic information while chi-square analysis was used to test the research hypothesis. It was discovered that there is significant effect of teaching and learning media on secondary school students’ performance in Biology.
The challenges militating against the adoption of media in Biology teaching and learning has significant impact on its future prospects.
Therefore, the study conclude that for the benefit of media to be enjoyed by teachers and students, there is need for more training and development for students and teachers in the use of ICT tools. The study recommended that government and other interested bodies in use of technology should ensure that critical factors for acceptance of media should be addressed in the implementation process.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Biology is a natural science that deals with the living world. How the world is structured, how it functions and what these functions are, how it develops, how livingthings came into existence, and how they react to one another and with their environment (Umar, 2011). This includes medicines, pharmacy, nursing, agriculture, forestry, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and many other areas (Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011).
Biology is seen as one of the core subjects in secondaray school curriculum. Because of its importance, more students enrolled for biology in the senior secondary school certificate examination (SSCE) than for physics and chemistry (West African Examination Council, 2011). Biology is introduced to students at senior secondary school level as a preparatory ground for human development, where career abilities are groomed, and potentials and talents discovered and energized (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2009). The quality and quantity of science education recieved by secondary school students are geared toward developing future scientists, technologist, engineers, and related professionals ( Kareem, 2006).
Inspite of the importance and popularity of biology among Nigerian students, performance at senior secondary school level has been poor (Ahmed, 2008). The implication of this failure in education is that Nigeria may have shortages of manpower in science and technology-related disciplines. This may affect Nigeria’s vision to become one of the 20 industrialized nations in the world by year 2020.
Poor teaching methods adopted by teachers at senior secondary school level in Nigeria have been identified as one of the major factors contributing to poor performance of students in biology (Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011; Kareem, 2006; Umar, 2011). The convectional teaching method is classroom-based and consists of lectures and direct instructions conducted by the teacher. This teacher-centered method emphasizes learning through the teacher’s guidance at all times. Students are expected to listen to lectures and learn from them. The teacher often talks at the students instead of encouraging them to interact, ask questions, or make them understand the lesson thoroughly. Most classes involve rote learning, where students depend on memorization without having a complete understanding of the subject. Just passing the tests, consisting of descriptions, matching, and other forms of indicators, is all that matters to complete the curriculum (Adegoke, 2011; Umar, 2011).
The persistence use of this method makes students passive rather than active learners. It does not promote insightful learning and long-term retention of some abstract concepts in biology (Ahmed, 2008; Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011; Kareem, 2006; Umar, 2011).
From research evidence, educators see the pressing need to reconsider the techniques and methods of instruction at senior secondary school level. To address these challenges, there is need for an instructional system that is supported by technology for meaningful learning. In the 21st century, a motivating and captivating approach should be encouraged to help students better learn, understand, and retain biology concepts and promote their future involvement. One of the promising approaches, according to Adegoke (2010); Kuti (2006); Mayer, Dow, and Mayer (2013); and Moreno and Mayer (2007), involves multimedia presentations supported in visual and verbal formats supplemented with pictures, animations, texts, and narration.
Media refers to the system used to present instruction. Students’ interest and retention could be aroused and retained through the use of multimedia instructional approach (Adegoke, 2010). Starbek, Eriavec, and Peklai (2010) reported that students acquired better knowwledge retention and improved comprehension skills more than the other groups when taught genetics with multimedia. Similarly, Achebe (2008) and Gambari and Zubairu (2008) found that students who were taught food and nutrition at senior secondary school level, and pupils taught primary science at nursery and primary school levels performed better and had better retention than those taught with traditional methods respectively.
According to Kim and Gilman (2008), it is necessary to apply learning theories in designing effective multimedia instruction. For instance, Mayer and his colleagues propounded six principles of multimedia learning: (a) the multimedia principle – students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone; (b) the spatial contiguity principle – students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented close or next to each other rather than far apart on the page or screen; (c) the temporal contiguity principle – students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively; (d) the coherence principle – students learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included; (e) the modality principle – students learn better when words in a multimedia are presented as spoken rather than printed text; (f) the redundancy principle – students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text (Mayer, 2007).
According to Adegoke (2011), all six principles have been proven repeatedly in empirical research e.g., Mayer, Bove, Bryman, Mars, and Tapangco (2013) for multimedia principle; Mousavi, Low and Sweller (2014) for modality principle; Mayer, Heiser, and Lonns (2007); Moreno & Mayer (2006); Tabbers, Martens, and Van-Merrieboer (2006) for redundancy principle. However, Thalheimer (2006) has reported findings that were not in consonance with Mayer’s (2014) multimedia learning principle. For instance, Muller, Lee, and Sharma (2008) found that the redundancy principle did not transfer to normal classroom situations. In his study, Muller (2008) suggested that addition of interesting information may help maintain the learners’ interest in a normal classroom environment.
The effective use of animation and its positive results on instructional message design is made evident by other research. For instance, Nusir, Alsmadi, Al-Kabi, and Shardqah (2010) found that the computer animation learning courseware had positive effects on students’ academic performance and achievement level (high and low).
Moreno and Mayer (2008) and Tabbers (2006) found that learning outcomes of students who learnt biology with courseware version of animation + narration were better than their colleagues who learnt biology either with animation + on-screen text or animation + narration + on-screen text. Mayer and Anderson (2014) reported that simultaneous presentation of animation and narration improved learning. However, Grobe and Struges cited in Saibu (2007) found that those taught through the conventional teaching methods achieved a mean posttest score slightly higher than those taught by the audio-tutorial (narration) method.
Studies on animation + narration + on-screen text were made evident by Mubaraq’s (2009) results that a still picture is better than (sound) words, animation better than a still picture, and sound better than silence. This was supported by Adegoke (2010), Adegoke (2011), and Chuang (2009) in their studies which examined the effect of animation, narration, and on screen text-based materials when combined simultaneously; the result showed that students in the animation + narration + onscreen text group scored significantly higher on the postbiology achievement test than their colleagues who were in the animation + narration only group, as well as those who were in the animation + on-screen text group. These studies were also not in agreement with the redundancy principle. However, Okwo and Asadu (2012) reported that three media (video, audio + picture, and audio) were found to be equally effective with no significant difference effect among the means when used for teaching Biology.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The picture today is that biology education is failing. The results of the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSSCE) of biology students in Nigeria are highly disturbing, considering the fact that the students would become future scientists.
According to West African Examination Council 2009-2014 Annual Report, the number of students that passed biology at credit level (A1-C6) was consistently less than 50% for the past five years (2009-2014) in Nigeria.
From research evidence, educators see the pressing need to reconsider the techniques and methods of instruction at senior secondary school level. To address these challenges, there is need for an instructional system that is supported by technology for meaningful learning. In the 21st century, a motivating and captivating approach should be encouraged to help students better learn, understand, and retain biology concepts and promote their future involvement. One of the promising approaches, according to Adegoke (2010); Kuti (2006); Mayer, Dow, and Mayer (2006); and Moreno and Mayer (2010), involves multimedia presentations supported in visual and verbal formats supplemented with pictures, animations, texts, and narration.
It is well recognized that multimedia remains the key towards improving learning outcomes. However, the extent to which this has been achieved has not yet been addressed in biology education. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of teaching and learning media on the performance of secondary school students in Biology, Lagos.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to determine the effect of teaching and learning media on the performance of secondary school students in Biology, Lagos.
Specifically, the study is aimed to determine:
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The essence of this study is to conduct an inquiry into the effect of teaching and learning media on the performance of secondary school students in Biology, Lagos. This research will be of great importance to the students, teachers, parents, government, curriculum planner and the nation at large. This project will equally help to correct misconception of any student or teacher on media. This research also will enable the educators to see the need to integrate media into education, it encourage the curriculum planner to design curriculum with the use of media, which involves the infusion of media as a tool to enhance learning and understanding in a content area or in a multidisciplinary setting.
Benefit to Students: Media environment enables students to learn in ways not previously possible. Effective integration is achieved when students are able to select media to obtain information in a timely manner, analyze and synthesize the information and present it effectively. Student are more engaged in the lesson and they take ownership of their learning.
Benefit to Teachers: Teachers have a more positive attitude towards their work and are able to provide more personalized learning. The teacher also finds a convenients way of gathering and keeping students record through the use of media.
Benefit to Parents: The Parents will benefit from this resaerch by seeing their children excelling in Biology class and being able to grasp and comprehend information and instruction they give to their children.
Benefit to Nation: Thecountryalsobenefit from this in terms of Economic progress which can result from direct job creation in the technology industry as well as from developing a better educated workforce.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Teaching and learning media does not have a significant effect on the performance of secondary school students in Biology.
H1: Teaching and learning media have a significant effect on the performance of secondary school students in Biology.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is limited to the effect of teaching and learning media on the performance of secondary school students in Biology, Lagos.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Media: Collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data.
Visual media: This is a colloquial expression used to designate things such as television, film, photography and painting, etc.
Audio media: It’s a communication outlets through audio devices like analog tape cassettes, radio, etc.
Audio-visual media: This is a communication outlets through both video and audio outlet such as a computer set with speaker, etc
Multimedia: Using more than one medium of expression such as combining video with audio.
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