Show all

THE EFFECTS OF WATER EXTRACT OF Telfairia occidentalis ON THE GUINEA-PIG ILEUM

10,000

ATTENTION:

BEFORE YOU READ THE CHAPTER ONE/ABSTRACT OF THE PROJECT TOPIC BELOW, PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION BELOW.THANK YOU!

 

INFORMATION:

YOU CAN GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT OF THE TOPIC BELOW. THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N10,000 ONLY.

THE FULL INFORMATION ON HOW TO PAY AND GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT IS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE. OR YOU CAN CALL: 08137701720

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF WATER EXTRACT OF Telfairia occidentalis ON THE GUINEA-PIG ILEUM

 

ABSTRACTS

The effects of water extract of telfairia occidentalis on the guinea-pig ileum were studied.

  1. The water extract of occidentalis caused contractions that were dose dependent on the guinea-pig ileum.
  2. These contractions were blocked by atropine – a well-known muscarinic receptor antagonist drug.
  3. In the presence of the water extract the PA2 value for atropine was 8.70 and 8.40 in the presence of acetylcholine. There is no significant difference in the two values (P< 0.05).

Thus, the water extract of T. occidentalis can be said have acetylcholine like effects on the muscarinic receptors of the guinea-pig ileum

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Telfairia occidentalis Hooker

Telfaira hooker, in the Cucurbitaceae, has only 2 species, Telfairia occidentalis Hooker of west Africa, and T. pedata (sims) Hooker of east Africa. Telfairia Occidentalis is grown along the edge of the forest zone, it does not occur wild but may be encountered as an escape from cultivation (Irvine, 1969). The crop is extensively cultivated in sourthern Nigeria spherically by the Igbos among whom it is fast becoming an important vegetable crops.

  1. occidentalis is a large, diecious perennial which climbs by means of bifid and often coiled tendrils. The stem is 5-ridged and convered, espercially when young with uniseriate, multicellular hairs.

The leaves are compound, usually 3-5 foliolate and rarely 7-foliolate. Like the stems, the leaf blades and petioles are convered with multicellular hairs, which apparently help confer on the plant the drought resistance reported by Oomen and Grubben (1977). Certain nodal stipules were observed to be centres of extra floral nectar secretion. These nectar-producing glands are also abundant on the abaxial (dorsal) surfaces of the leaves especially when young. Since nectarines are known to be sites for the production of amino acids in addition to sugars (baker Baker, 1973), the high nutritive value Telfairia leaves (Oyenuga, 1968) is apparently due to the amino acids, at least in part.

The staminate plant, flowers in about 14 weeks from the date of planting, the pistillate flowers a few weeks later. The staminate flowers are borne in recemose (cluster) inflorescenences while the pestillate flowers are solitary.

The fruits of the fluted pumpkin (as Telfairia is alos called) are among the largest known, comparable in size with the fruits of Artocarpus spp. And some Lagenaria, citrullus and cucurbita spp. They may measure up to 105cm in length and 9cm in diameter. They are outwardly marked by 10 conspicous longitudinal ridges, pal green when young, but convered with a dense white wax-like convering. On maturity a yellowish ripe-epicarp is revealed. Embedded within a bright yellow fibrous endcarp are numerous seeds which may number up to 196.

Telfairia is propagated solely by seeds. In most parts of sourthern Nigeria, it is grown close to trees, fences, walls, or special platforms on which the shoots are allowed to climb freely.

It may also be grown on special mounds (as in rivers state) in much the same way as yams (Dioscorea spp.) This latter method is used when they are cultivated particularly for their leaves rather than their fruits.

The emergence of the plumule of a mature and viable seed takes 1 -2 weeks from the date of planting. However, some seeds germinate to an advanced stage even while still within the fruit. Germination is hypogeal.

Toxicity tests of several of roots and leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis were carried out by akubue, Kar and Nnachetta (180), their findings are summarized in the Tables below.

Table 1

Summary of the toxicity and chemical tests on various extracts from Telfairia occidentalis root

Extract % Extractives Chical test Toxicity in rat (upto 1g/kg)
1.    Petroleum Ether (40’ – 600c)

2.    Benzene

3.    Chloroform

4.    Acetone

5.    Alcohol

6.    water

0.73

0.49

0.61

0.62

a)    0.68 (Bolid)

b)    6.41 (Liquid)

3.63

Fixed oil

Bitter Principle and Resin

Alkaloids

Saponin

Glycoside

Saponin; Tannin

Nontoxic

Toxic

(500mg/kg)

Toxic

(500mg/kg)

Non-toxic

Non-toxic

Toxic (500mg/kg)

Table II

Summary of the toxicity and chemical tests on various extracts obtained  from the dried leaves of Telfairai occidentalis

Extract % Extractives Chemical  tests Toxicity in mice (up to 100mg/kg)
1.    Petroleum Ether

(40-60oc)

2.    Benzene

3.    Chloroform

4.    Acetone

5.    Alcohol

6.    water

3.13

 

 

0.83

0.66

0.46

0.61

4.07

Fixed oil

 

 

Resinous matter

Alkaloids

Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate

Saponin; Tannin

Non-toxic

 

 

Non-toxic

Toxic (100mg/kg)i.p

Non-toxic

Non-toxic

Toxic (500mg/kg) i.p.

 

Their results indicate that the root of Telfairia Occidentalis contain substances which are lethal to small animals. The leaves which were obtained during the dry season, were the old, non-edible ones, they were also found to be toxic to the animals.  The use of fluted pumkin are numerous and varied, it is grown primary as a leafy vegetable in southern Nigeria. The pleasant-tasting leaves and tender shoots are picked continuously. The leaves are added to soups along with egusi (citrullus colocynthis) seeds, or sometimes cooked with yam and plan oil. When compared with other tropical vegetables, its nutritive value is high, for example, it is rich in oil (about 13%) and its protein content (21%) is higher than that of water leaf (Talimum), Okra (Abelmoschus) and cassava leaves which are other commonly used leafy vegetables.

The large, highly nutritious sees (Joinson and Johnson, 1976) are roasted or boiled and eaten like the seeds are sometimes powdered and added to thicken soups in the same way that the seeds of citrullus colocynthis are used. The oil content of the cotyledons is high and upon extraction may be used as cooking oil.

It has been suggested to further explore the possible use of the4 leaves as folder because they are very much sought after by sheep and goats (Oyenuga, 1968). Also suggested is the possibility of using the non-drying oil in the seeds in soap making (Irvine, 1969).

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to 08137701720

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

 

NOTE:

YOU CAN ALSO MAKE A TRANSFER PAYMENT

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08137701720

 

AFFILIATE LINKS:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.net.ng

www.easyprojectsmaterials.net.ng

www.easyprojectsmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng