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THE EXTENT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

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THE EXTENT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background to the Study

Instructional materials are the wide variety of equipment and materials

used for teaching and learning. Some are real objects, others are pictures, charts, television, radio, filmstrips, and slide projectors which bring about effectiveness and efficiency in teaching learning process and thereby enhance the achievement of instructional objectives (Okwor and Ike (1995).

The major objectives of social studies education include the inculcation of the desired knowledge, attitudes, interests, values, behaviour pattern, thinking processes and some basic skills such as reading, language study and participation. As a problem solving discipline, social studies is designed to assist man proffer solutions to his problems whether, cultural, geographical, sociological, historical, political and psychological, Igbo and Nweke (2004). Other important skills are map reading, and interpretation. It was pointed out that the teaching of social studies requires the use of various materials and activities that represent the various facts of human behaviour, activities and relationship with others (Famwang, 1998). This is necessary so as to reflect the inter disciplinary nature of social studies.

Instructional resources play important roles in teaching Social Studies. The National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) in U.S.A. stated that social studies education needs not only teachers, textbooks, and blackboards but also

The Nigerian Journal of Research and Production Volume 17 No 1, November, 2010 requires the use of maps, reference books, periodicals, audio and visual materials, field trips and great lectures (NCSS 1979). The council pointed out that a variety of media should be available for learning through seeing, touching and acting. The social studies classroom should be a learning laboratory.

Clark (1973) and Ogunsanya (1984) listed tools and materials of instruction in social studies. These are film slides, pictures, resource people, diagrams, sketches, cartoons, stamps, mass media, newspapers, television and radio, maps, globes, and textbooks.   In  most  secondary  schools  in  Nigeria most of the instructional materials required for teaching social studies are scarce. Even where they are available, they are under utilized. Famwang (1989) gave a report of a study conducted by Adewoye (1987) about the status of instructional aids for teaching social studies in Nigeria. The study revealed that teaching materials are grossly lacking in Nigerian schools. It was reported that 89 percent of the respondents claimed that they had no improvise, while 57 percent indicated that they had no access to resource materials at all. Ismaila (1989) reported that out of 144 subjects involved in a study, 124 (86.1%) indicated that their schools were in short supply of teaching materials. In another related study by Pwajok reported by Famwang (1989), it was found that a large percentage of students (61.3%) and (77.5%) of the teachers believe that lack of suitable and relevant textbooks made students develop a nonchalant attitude to social studies. Social studies education may not be successfully accomplished and its objectives attained without the availability and use of adequate teaching materials. The rapid changes in technology and pattern of communication meant for education have exposed teachers to more challenges in the teaching and learning process.

Statement of the problem

Some activities are recommended in the social studies curriculum standard for teaching social studies. These include simulation, excursion, role playing and dramatization. Excursion is a very important and essential part of social studies education. Through excursion, students see things for themselves, and that makes learning more interesting and effective. By the use of role playing, dramatization and simulation students will develop skills in oral presentations. The issue really is on how to prepare students for a world marked by accelerating global interdependence.

 

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study are to find out

  1. the instructional materials that are available in junior secondary schools for teaching social studies.
  2. the extent the teachers use them for teaching social studies.
  3. the activities used by social studies teachers to facilitate teaching and learning.

 

Research Questions

  1. What instructional materials are available in the junior secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area for teaching social studies?
  2. To what extent do teachers use instructional materials in teaching social studies in these schools?
  3. What activities do social studies teachers use to facilitate teaching and learning?

 

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