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THE GLOBAL REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS AND COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES

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THE GLOBAL REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS AND COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………..     i

CERIFICATION PAGE……………………………………………………..  ii

DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………..   iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………… iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….  v-vii

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………..   viii

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………   ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………………………………..         x-xi

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………   xii

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                                          PAGE(S)

BACKGROUND………………………………………………………..  1 – 5

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM………………………………        5 – 7

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY……………………………………..         7

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………       8

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS…………………………………………         8

SCOPE OF THE STUDY……………………………………………. 9

ASSUMPTIONS………………………………………………………… 9

LIMITATIONS……………………………………………………………          10

ENDNOTES………………………………………………………………  11 – 12

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                        PAGE(S)

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………… 13

CONCEPT OF REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS……    14 – 21

CONCEPT OF COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS…………………..  21 – 24

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REVOLUTION IN MILITARY

AFFAIRS AND COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS…………………..  24 – 27

SUMMARY………………………………………………………………….  27-28

ENDNOTES…………………………………………………………………  29 – 32

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                              PAGE(S)

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………..  33

RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………………………….  33 – 34

IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES………………………………….  34

AREA OF STUDY………………………………………………………….  34

POPULATION……………………………………………………………….  35

INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION………………………..  35

VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT……………………………………… 35 – 36

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION………………………………….. 36

WEAKNESS OF THE METHODOLOGY……………………………  37

SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………….  37 – 38

ENDNOTES…………………………………………………………………..  39

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                           PAGE(S)

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………. 40

HOW REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS AFFECTS

COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS……………………………………………. 41 – 48

TECHNOLOGICAL CAPACITY OF THE NIGERIAN

ARMED FORCES…………………………………………………………… 49 – 59

CHALLENGES FACING THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES

IN ADAPTING NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR MODERN

WARFARE………………………………………………………………………   60 – 64

STRATEGIES FOR THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES

TO ACQUIRE NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR A

REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS…………………………………. 65 – 71

SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………….  71 – 72

ENDNOTES…………………………………………………………………… 73 – 75

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                  PAGE(S)

CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………..  76 – 81

RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………….  81 – 82

ANNEX A ………………………………………………………………………. A – 1

ANNEX B ………………………………………………………………………. B – 1

 

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPY………………………………………………………………..  84 – 89

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Serial         Title of Table      Page No

(a)     (b)     (c)

  1. Capacity of Electronic and Information and Communication Technology.

 

53-54

  1. Capacity in Projectiles, Propulsion and Platforms Technology.

57

  1. Capacity in Ships Technology. 58
  2. Capacity in Solar Energy/Material Technology.

59

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Serial         Title of Figure    Page No

(a)     (b)     (c)

  1. Combat Effectiveness and Military Revolutions. 46
  2. Pattern of Military Revolutions. 48
  3. Comparison of Proposed Defence Research and Development Expenditures of Nigeria with some Countries.

 

52

  1. Capacity of Personnel in Electronics and Information Communications Technology.

55

  1. Capacity in Electronics and Information Communications Technology.

56

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 

  1. C2 –        Command and Control.

 

  1. C3 –        Command, Control and Communication.

 

  1. C4I –        Command, Control, Communications,

Computers and Information.

 

  1. C4ISR –        Control, Communication, Computer,

Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance.

 

  1. C2W –        Command and Control Warfare.

 

  1. DDRD –        Department of Defence Research and                                                              Development.

 

  1. DHQ –        Defence Headquarters.

 

  1. DOD –        Department of Defence.

 

  1. DPRS –        Department of Planning, Research and                                                            Statistics.

 

  1. DR&D –        Department of Research and Defence.

 

  1. EM –        Electromagnetic.

 

  1. FMST –        Federal Ministry of Science and Technology.

 

  1. FSD –        Full Spectrum Dominance.

 

  1. GPS –        Global Positioning System.

 

  1. ICT –        Information and Communication Technology.

 

  1. JSTARS –        Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar Systems.

 

  1. MOD –        Ministry of Defence.

 

  1. MODISICS –        MOD Integrated Strategic Information                                                           and Communication System.

 

  1. MPRI –        Military Professional Resources Incorporated.

 

  1. NCW –        Network Centric Warfare.

 

  1. NICOMSAT-1 – Nigeria Communication Satellite – 1.

 

  1. PGM –        Precision Guided Munitions.

 

  1. R & D –        Research and Development.
  2. RMTA –        Revolution in Military-Technical Affairs.

 

  1. SDC –        System  Development Centre.

 

  1. TTG –        Technical Training Group.

 

  1. UAV –        Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

 

  1. USA –        United States of America.

 

  1. WMP –        Weapons of Mass Protection.

 

  1. WW II –        Second World War.

 

ABSTRACT

 

This research was conducted to highlight the impact of RMA on combat effectiveness. It was carried out to confirm how RMA can have an effect on the effectiveness of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The study also set out to identify challenges for the Nigerian Armed Forces in achieving a RMA.

 

The study used the descriptive research design and the casual comparative study was used to identify how the variables related. The study revealed that there was a direct relationship between RMA and combat effectiveness.  It revealed that RMA was not achieved by technology alone but by its skilful application and proper adaptation of military doctrines to address modern threats. It further identified some of the challenges facing the Nigerian Armed Forces in acquiring modern technologies which was necessary for a RMA.

 

To this end, some strategies at acquiring modern technologies were proffered. These included joint acquisition, phased modernisation and improved funding for R & D. The recommendations made if considered would improve the level of RMA for the Nigerian Armed Forces and facilitate an improvement in combat effectiveness.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

  1. Weapons technology has progressed within the last century. Munitions can now be delivered with unprecedented precision; surveillance and reconnaissance systems can provide amazingly detailed information about hostile forces, structures and locations. A combination of data analysis and distribution systems can allow this information to be rapidly exploited. Most military analysts agree that the advances in military technology require a fundamental reappraisal and revision of operational concepts to ensure that full advantage is exploited. This combination of technological advances and revisions in operational concepts represents a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA).1

 

  1. RMA is a major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of new technologies. This leads to dramatic changes in military doctrine, operational and organisational concepts. It will fundamentally alter the character and conduct of military operations.2 Such revolutions have occurred many times in history for a variety of reasons. The most obvious cause is the technological thrust which started with the industrial age. The invention of gun powder, the steam engine, submarine, internal combustion engine, aeroplane, aircraft carrier and the atom bomb are some of the most obvious innovations which led to changes in the conduct of modern warfare.3

 

  1. Some of these technological advances originated in the civil sector. Other forms of RMA were brought about by social military revolutions such as the development of railways, which enabled military forces to be moved and supplied over great distances.4 RMA has changed the spectrum of warfare in today’s dynamic battle space. The effect has been demonstrated in recent wars after WW II. The Gulf war was characterised by digital battle fields with state-of-the-art Precision Guided Missiles (PGMs), cruise missiles and an exceptional display of air power among others.

 

  1. Advances in technology have created a global environment with relatively unrestricted flow of information. Thus there is now a gradual shift from the centre of gravity of traditional methods of force and means of combat towards non-traditional methods, including information. The ability to access the right information at the right time has made tremendous impact on command and control. Nowadays, information communications technology (ICT) tools are becoming real weapons, not just in a metaphoric sense but in the direct sense as well.5 The drivers of the current RMA are the PGMs, sensors, fibre optics and the miniaturisation of microchips, global positioning systems (GPS), satellite technologies and simulators. These are all products of ICT and components of network-centric warfare (NCW). Therefore, the appropriateness of information could make a difference in the outcome of a war.6

 

  1. The pace of technological advancement is unprecedented. In the past, technological advancement was either contingent on or catalyzed by military needs, but today, technological innovations seem to dictate the ways and means of war fighting.7 Developing countries therefore, need to cope with this wave of change and its challenges. Developing countries like Egypt, Brazil and South Africa have some advantages. They possess an appreciable level of technology and a strong defence industrial base which can match some of the challenges. This is due to the adaptation of technology available to their peculiar environments. Nigeria, in view of her low defence industrial base, needs to examine the options available. Modern technology is having an overwhelming influence on the world and one is either part of it or prey to it.8 This is pertinent if Nigeria must become relevant in the global RMA in order to be effective in modern warfare.9

 

  1. The next few decades could pose both political and military challenges to Nigeria.10 These challenges are occasioned by the quest to have a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, regional power posture and Nigeria’s frontline role in the cooperation and integration of Africa. The unavoidable characteristics of the environment in which the Nigerian Armed Forces could fight in the future dictate that her forces should be structured to face such challenges. Since globalization has united the world into one village, the employment of the Nigerian Armed Forces will not be limited to the West African arena alone. Today, internal conflicts within one state are easily made international by global media coverage and many nations are quickly drawn into them.11

 

  1. The situation in the Nigerian Armed Forces is that there has been scanty and uncoordinated acquisition of modern platforms, weapons systems and equipment. Consequently, some of those in the inventory are either becoming or are already obsolete. Others have become degraded by long usage and poor maintenance. Furthermore, strategies and processes for upgrading them are not clearly defined due to lack of defined policies from the Ministry of Defence (MOD). The situation is further compounded by the competition for resources by other sectors of the economy in addition to the defence sector.12

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

  1. In the Nigerian Armed Forces today, the development of technology facilities is at a rudimentary state. Thus, were the Nigerian military to witness for example, an information warfare attack on its ICT facilities it would face severe challenges. Equally worrisome is the dearth of modern platforms, weapons systems, equipment and the absence of appropriate policies to address the problem. The situation is further compounded by the paucity of funds and a low level of national technological and industrial base.
  2. The Nigerian Armed Forces since its inception starting with the Nigerian Army (NA) in 1883 has participated in both internal and external operations in the fulfilment of its constitutional roles. However, the degraded and obsolete status of the fighting equipment in its inventory has affected its fighting capability. In view of the role of the Nigerian Armed Forces to achieve the objectives of the National Defence Policy, it would be important to discover how the Nigerian Armed Forces could keep pace with trends in global RMA. It would also be important to learn how the RMA can enhance combat effectiveness. This is what generated the researcher’s interest in the study. It is against this background, that the study seeks to answer the following questions:

 

  1. What constitutes a RMA?

 

  1. What is the relationship between the RMA and combat effectiveness?

 

  1. What are the challenges for the Nigerian Armed Forces in achieving a RMA?

 

  1. What strategies and policies can be employed to achieve a RMA for the Nigerian Armed Forces in order to enhance combat effectiveness?

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

  1. The objectives of this study are to:

 

  1. Examine what constitutes a RMA.

 

  1. Examine the relationship between the RMA and combat effectiveness.

 

  1. Examine the challenges of the Nigerian Armed Forces in achieving a RMA.

 

  1. Proffer strategies for achieving a RMA in the Nigerian Armed Forces in order to enhance combat effectiveness.

 

 

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

 

  1. The outcome of the study is significant in the fact that it would contribute to the advancement of knowledge on the RMA. It would also assist the MOD to appreciate the necessity for achieving a RMA. Additionally, it would stimulate further research on the RMA thus contributing to the drive by the Nigerian Armed Forces in improving its capability in the defence of Nigeria’s territorial integrity. Furthermore, it would provide material for further studies on the concept of RMA.

 

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

 

  1. This study seeks to establish the following:

 

  1. There is a direct relationship between RMA and combat effectiveness.

 

  1. A RMA would reinforce the position of the Nigerian Armed Forces as a dominant influence in Africa and a force to be reckoned with technologically in the global arena.

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

  1. The study examines the RMA in the Nigerian Armed Forces. It also examines the effect of RMA on combat effectiveness. It covers military developments from 2000 – 2010 and the corresponding changes in modern warfare. This period witnessed many changes as to how technological advances were applied in modern warfare and the popularization of RMA.

 

  1. The study identifies challenges for the Nigerian Armed Forces in adapting new technologies for modern warfare which leads to RMA. It will also proffer strategies for the Nigerian Armed Forces to acquire new technologies for a RMA.

 

ASSUMPTIONS

 

  1. This study views combat effectiveness in terms of limited and general war. Although none of Nigeria’s immediate neighbours is a major threat to her territorial integrity, the possibility of engaging in warfare with their allies was considered.

 

 

LIMITATIONS

 

  1. The study conducted was limited by time and the desire of the researcher to visit several institutions for recently published data. Consequently, secondary data was used to analyse the concepts of RMA and combat effectiveness.

 

  1. The sources were reputable international bodies although their findings may not be devoid of bias. However, care was taken to ensure that the study was successfully accomplished to the best possible standards.

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