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THE HEIGHT OF THE LONGITUDINAL ARCH IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN PORT HARCOURT

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THE HEIGHT OF THE LONGITUDINAL ARCH IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN PORT HARCOURT

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Introduction

Materials and method

Results

Discussion

Summary and conclusion

References

Appendix

ABSTRACT

Studying the height of the longitudinal arch was carried out in school aged children in Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers State of Nigeria.

School children from Army children school, government reservation Area (G.R.A) phase I Diobu Port Harcourt were used as the project subjects – this school was selected because it is a school which accommodates children from both high classes and low classes group of parents. The school consist of four different schools but the project was carried out using schools I and III which are in the morning and afternoon sections respectively.

The mean, varaicne, standard deviation and mean standard the centiles and mean plots for each group were made, comparisms were also made between:-

  • Male height of those shoes and that of those without shoes using mean plots of each sex.
  • The height of those with shoes and that of those without shoes using mean height plots.
  • The height against centiles for each age for all the children studied.

The medial congitudinal arch increases in height with age and the males have a higher       height than females and also children who put on shoes to school have a lower height than those who attend school bare footed.

The Histogran and frequency polygon of the frequency distribution were also plotted for each age and for all the children.

INTRODUCTION

ARCH

          Anatomist defined it as any structure that is curved like an arch or bow. Hence any structure that is curved like an arch or bow. Hence any structure in the body which is curved is an arch.

The word arch as applied to the human foot, has perhaps been customarily interpreted to two architectural sense, and this has led to some rigidity in classical descriptions of the curved form of the foot, and to differences of opinion based sometimes more upon linguistics that fact. In common usage the word arch has several meanings, and doubtless the expression ‘’Arches of the foot’’ has different implications.

As a starting point, it is perhaps wisest to accept the simplest meaning, which in this case implies little more than a curved from, convave on the plantar aspect, such an arch need not be confused with a piece of static masonry with two extremities set on terra firma and an intermediate structure of keystone pattern. The pedal arch is a dynamic arrangement, from which muscles and ligament are functionally inseparable; it is, however more of the time off the ground at its calcanean end. In the account which follows, therefore, the term ‘’arch’’ is used to denote no more than a curved form, just as the back is merely curved when it is ‘’arched’’.

The general shape of the articulated tarsal and metatarsal bones for the foot is that of a half dome, concave inferiorly. When the feet are together, the two half sones form a single dome. The rim of the half domes each consist of the e hell, the lateral border of the foot, and the heads of the metatarsal bones. It is the skin covering these parts of the foot which comes into contact with the ground and forms the footpring of a bore foot.

Conventionally, the foot is described as having tow subsidiary components by its curved or bowed form.

  • Transverse arch
  • Longitudinal arches

The transverse arch is a half arch except at the heads of the metatarsals which form a complete but flat transverse arch. This arch is seen best in the region of the tarsometatarsal joints. Here the cuneiform bones and the metatarsal bases are wedge-shaped. Their narrow plantar surfaces are held tightly together by plantar and interosseous ligaments and by the plantar surfaces of these bones a much smaller radius of curvature than theri9 dorsal surfaces, thus forming a well-defined transverse arch. This arch is not of importance to this project but I is better to know about it.

The longitudinal arches which form the main topic in this project is a bony arch having a greater height and a wider span on the medial than on the lateral side of the foot. The longitudinal curvature of the foot is usually accounted as consisting of a medial and a lateral arch or components, and this is to some degree justified by the justified by the arrangement of bones in the foot and by functional differences in its medial and lateral parts, (see Figs I & 2 on pages 53 and 54)

MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH

The medial congitudinal arch comprises the caleaneus, talus, navicular, the cuneiforms and the medial three metatarsal bones. Its summit is the full thrust of the tibia; from this, stresses are passed backwards to the calcaneus, and forwards through the navicular, cuneiforms, to the medial three metatarsal bones. When the foot is on the found, forces are transmitted to the ground the heads of the three metatarsals and the plantar aspect of the calcaneus, more especially its tuberosity.

This medial congitudinal arch is considerably higher, more mobile and resilient than the lateral flattening the medial arch progressively tightens up the plantar ligaments of all the joints involved, including the planter calcaneonavicular and the plantar fascia (see Fig. 3). The tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor halluces longus, and intrinsic muscles in the foot all aid in controlling the media longitudinal arch, with the advantage of being almost infinitely adjustable, unlike the ligaments.

Nevertheless, these muscles are often considered to play a secondary part, and it is claimed that they are not usually active in standing, but come into marked activity in any movement which involves elevation of the arch. This view, as regards static posture, does not accord with clinical views on the actiology of flat foot.

LATERAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH

This is almost flat, and is composed of the calcaneus, cuboid, and the lateral two metatarsal bones. Its submit is considered to be the subtalar articulation, and it is hence skeletally much lower than the medial longitudinal arch. It chief joint’’, with a markedly limited range of mobility, and built to transmit weight and thrust to the ground, rather than to provide a mechanism for the absorption of such forces.

As its flattens under stress, the long plantar and plantar calcaneocuboid ligaments are tightened; muscles of particular significance is the activities of the arch are the peroneus longus and the short muscles of the fifth toe. The lateral arch makes more extensive contact with the found than the medial, under the tress of weight and thrust. With the foot flat on the ground its anterior and posterior extremities, that is, the heads of the lateral two metatarsals and calcanean tuberosity, of course transmit these forces; but as the arch flattens, an increasing fraction of the load is transmitted through the soft tissues inferior to the whole of the arch.

In fact, in the living part, the whole of the lateral border does not, exhibiting a concavity in most subjects, even when sanding. This accounts for the usual outline of the human foot print, though this varies according to the positioning of the feet, whether apart or together and according to the development of soft tissues within the arch. As soon as the heel is raised, preparatory to walking or standing on tip-toe, the toes because extended and the muscular structures which also includes the plantar aponeurosis, tightens up in the sole with a consequent accentuation of the longitudinal arches. It is deduced by Hicks J.H. (1955) that in this phase of activity tension diminishes in the deeper plantar ligaments.

The longitudinal and transverse arches, especially the longitudinal arches and particularly the medial longitudinal arch, vary in height in different individuals; even more importantly, being dynamic, they vary thus in the same individual in different phases of activity. The arched form is often said to be largely dependent on bony configurations and the effects of ligamentous tie, the muscles associated with the arches playing a secondary role (Hicks J. H. 1955, Jones, R.L. 1941).

On the other hand, clinical experience points to muscular insufficiency as the commonest cause of fact foot, in which ligaments elongate and bones ultimately, alter their configuration. It is therefore unwise, perhaps, to pick one or other factor for particular emphasis, especially since all work together in the functioning of the living foot.

ANTHROPOLOGY

The study of man is anthropology. It is the conglomeration of all scientific information about man. This information will include a division into three major disciplines:

  1. Physical Anthropology
  2. Social Anthropology
  • Cultural Anthropology

The social and cultural Anthropological studies will not be treated in this project since they are irrelevant.

The physical Anthropology involves studies in physical variation of man or variations in physical characteristics. This variations may include measurable variations which is then called anthropometry or immeasurable variation which is in the province of anthroposophy.

Anthropometry is the study of physical anthropology through measurable parameters which varies from individual to individual and from people to people and from race to race. They are therefore used to characterise races and tribes and originally were used to classify superiority of races especially in measurements of skull dimension.

Anthropometry measures both soft and hard tissues dimension which has the following dimensions:

  • Cephalometry – measurement of the skull
  • Somatometry – measures different parts of the soft tissues of the body.
  • Pelvimetry – measures the peluic dimensions. Apart from these three types of Anthropometry, there are also measurements on living subjects using x-rays or on cadavarian skeleton. There is also measurement of physical land marks like the height of the medial longitudinal arch.

 

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