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# THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN WAEC EXAMINATION IN CIVIC EDUCATION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Conflict is defined as disagreement between two or more persons as a result of unexpected behaviour, change in attitude or denial of right over an issue (Mogbo, 2002). Conflict between parents and adolescents at this stage could be as a result of chain reaction. Change in attitude of the adolescent as a result of the developmental stage could trigger off force, excessive control and denial of rights by parents. When adolescent’s needs are not met he clashes with anybody or anything that comes his way.
Conflict is a disagreement between two or more persons, it is generally disturbing to all those involved. Adolescent-parental conflict coupled with the developmental stage is stressful to the adolescent. He needs help and support, and since the parents are not in the position to render this help because of the conflict, the adolescent seeks counsel from the peer group. This is the foundation for maladjustment (Forehand et al, 2001), it is an opportunity to copy bad behaviours and wrong attitudes to life. If this maladjustment is not properly handled, it is capable of affecting the progress of the adolescent.
Children from homes with marital conflict generally have poor academic achievement when the conflict affects the parent-child relationship. The reverse is the case when parent-child relationship is not affected (Miliotis Sesma and Masten, 2007). This suggests that parent-child relationship is important for proper adjustment of the child in school. Parents are also stressed and unhappy when relationship, with their children is not cordial. The level of adolescent parental conflict and its influence vary from individual to individual, from family to family and from one society to another.
In some cases, it is more between fathers and sons in other cases between mothers and daughters and vice versa. Adolescent parental conflict in some families are relatively infrequent short-lived and mild in intensity. While in some other families or societies, it is so severe that they may need the help of a counsellor (Allison, 2000).
Communication barrier or improper communication is another important reason for conflict. When adolescents are not given reasons why they should or should not do anything, they feel unnecessarily restricted. They become angry and may even revolt against their parents. (Winex and Anderson, 2007).
Academic performance refers to how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and studies (Scortt’s, 2012). Grades are certainly the most well-known indicator of academic performance. Grades are the student’s “score” for their classes and overall tenure. Grades are most often a tallying or average of assignment and test scores and may often be affected by factors such as attendance an instructor opinion of the student as well.
Grading systems vary greatly by county and school; common scales include a percentage form 1-100, lettering systems from A-F, and grade point averages (GPA) from 0-4.0 or above. According to Ward, Stocker and Murray-Ward (2006) academic performance refers to the outcome of education; the extent to which the student, teacher or institution have achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate one’s knowledge verbally or written on paper (Answers, 2010).
In the context of this study, performance refers to the extent to which students have achieved mastery of the objectives of the subjects they are exposed to in school. According to (Aremu and Sokan 2003) academic achievement has been observed in school subjects especially mathematic and English language among secondary school students.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Adolescent is a very stressful developmental stage, the child has numerous problems to cope with and many questions to ask about himself, his changing environment and his career. This is also the period of working hard, making vocational choice suitable both for his ability and interest, if he must experience job satisfaction in future. The child needs the guardian of the parents and teachers now more than ever. Most grownups shows bad examples by fighting amongst themselves in the presence of the children and in most cases, they might just be the ones encouraging them to engage in conflict forgetting that it could have a negative effect on their educational sector, and all these unnecessary actions are just so on call for. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the impact of conflict on academic performance of students but not even a single research has been carried out on the impact of conflict on the performance of students in WAEC examination in civic education in Jos metropolis of Plateau state.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine the impact of conflict on the performance of students in WAEC examination in civic education in Jos metropolis. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Conflict has no significant effect on the performance of students in WAEC examination in civic education.
H1: Conflict has a significant effect on the performance of students in WAEC examination in civic education.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the impact of conflict on the performance of students in WAEC examination in civic education will be of immense benefit to the entire Jos metropolis of Plateau state in the sense that it will enable the government to employ competent teachers to teach the students and also the school management will be able to set up a committee that takes care of the defaulters of conflicts in the school. The study will also enable the teachers to check their lives in that they can be bold enough to show it as the best example for the students to follow because as the teacher, the students look up to them for any example of life style they portray. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the impact of conflict on the performance of students is limited to WAEC examination in civic education in Jos metropolis of Plateau state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ImpactA marked effect or influence.
ConflictRefers to some form of friction, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group.
PerformanceIs the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
StudentsIs primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educatiobnal institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery.
ExaminationA formal test of a person’s knowledge or proficiency in a subject or skill.
Civic Education In a democracy is education in self government. Democratic self government means that citizens are actively involved in their own governance; they do not just passively accept the dictums of others or acquiesce to the demands of others.
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