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THE IMPACT OF JOS CRISIS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM
The educational system has suffered setback as a result of struggles between individuals and groups seeking for political or religious fulfillment. It was for this reason that prompted the researcher to investigate ‘the impacts of Jos crisis on the implementation of Geography curriculum in Jos south LGA’. Two research questions and two null hypothesis were formulated while a survey design was adopted for the study where students of geography where sampled out from seven (7) Senior Secondary Schools within Jos south Local Government Area. The major instrument used for the collection of data was a structured questionnaire which was divided into part ‘A’ and ‘B’ respectively in order to answer the research questions. The questionnaires are made up of five (5) point rating where the respondents indicate their response by ticking. Oral interview was also conducted by the researcher and the result was compared with the responses in the questionnaires. The statistical tool employed by researcher is the simple mean and Chi-square in testing the two hypotheses. In the hypothesis testing, result showed that the first hypothesis was accepted while the second hypothesis was rejected. Findings show that crises prevent students from school, some mission schools were burnt down during the crises and imposition of curfew by the government paralyzed school activities among others. Following the findings therefore, the recommendations include; the government should do everything possible to ensure peace reigns in the society and religious institutions should watch against instigative activities as the structures of the society including education are at the receiving end. It was therefore concluded that Jos crises had significant impact on the performance of geography students in Jos south LGA but it had no significant impact on the implementation of the geography curriculum based on this study.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The entire society is built on different functional structures which interdependent on one another. These structures include the educational structure, economic structure, political structure among others. Community settlement is essential for human survival and the various interactions are bound to give rise to conflicts (Crises) because no group of individuals or society is an island. Conflicts do occur for it is an inevitable aspect of life but it needs to be controlled.
Conflict can be seen as a violent situation in which groups of people or states are involved in serious disagreement or argument due to opposing ideas, feelings, opinions or wishes. In this regard therefore, when conflict occurs, it creates either positive or negative results (impacts) on the structure of the society.
The Jos crisis dates back since 2001 where violence erupted in Jos city, the capital of Plateau state in Nigeria’s middle Belt Region. The ostensible dispute is over the “right of the indigene Berom/Anaguta/Afizere (BAA) group and the rival claims of the Hausa Fulani settlers to land, power and resources because the settlers are almost entirely Muslims and the indigenous people are predominantly Christians. Struggle over land ownership, economic resources and political control tends to be expressed not just in ethnic but also religious terms and the dispute is compounded by the fact that among the settlers groups, only the Hausa/Fulani claim proprietary of Jos. Since the end of 2010, security has further deteriorated in Jos because of terror attacks and suicide bombing against churches and security targets by suspected militants of Boko-Haram, the Islamic group and therefore, there have been difficulties in the smooth running of schools.
The school curriculum is simply seen as “everything that happens in school including the subjects, content, methods, time and evaluation among others. The curriculum needs to be implemented effectively as planned for the realization of set objectives. Geography is one of the subjects in secondary schools in which its multi-faceted areas are systematically planned for effective implementation by subject teachers.
A student performance is determined by the level of achievement of the set objectives. Student performance objective is a specific statement about what a student should be able to do as a result instruction. In most cases, that would be a short period of instruction and would involve student completing some simple task “correctly”. Whatever the task (as specified in the objective) it must be something that must be evaluated by observing the student or having the students respond to a test question. Students learn more quickly and more effectively when they are told in advance exactly what they are expected to be able to do as a result of instruction.
The impact of the Jos crisis led to serious tension and creating fear among people including school children and teachers thereby paralyzing school activities. Also, the imposition of 24-hours curfew by the State Governor brought school programs to a halt. Suffice it to say therefore, that the implementation of the geography curriculum suffered serious setbacks as a result of the crisis and it’s to this respect that the researcher took this study to find out the impact of Jos crisis on the implementation of geography’s curriculum in Jos south.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem under investigation is Jos crises and it’s impact on the geography curriculum. The researcher seeks to study is the impact of Jos crisis on the effective implementation of geography curriculum in Jos South Local Government of Plateau State. The crises appear to prevent students and teachers from attending school because it was a threat to their lives. This means that whenever happens, the subject(s) to be taught at that time are not taught thereby causing haphazard implementation of the geography curriculum.
It is in line to this that Alaezi (1989) noted that attempts to change the Nigerian school curriculum by the classroom teaching, student-teacher relation ship and changing teachers’ image ended in no change as a result of many impending factors including social and political unrest. Curriculum reformers therefore belief that only the human factor matters in curriculum changes and practice.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study is carried out in order to enable the researcher to achieve the following objectives at the end of the study:
To ascertain the role of Jos crisis on SS3 students’ performance in geography with focus on some selected schools in Jos south LGA, especially in senior secondary schools situated in areas that were touched by the crises.
To find out the challenges encountered by students and teachers during or after the crisis and how possibly, the challenges where remedied.
To find out whether curfew imposed by Government affected teachers and students and the entire school activities in any way. This will also enable the researcher know if there was any special consideration for teachers and students when the government imposed a Curfew.
To determine the level of coverage of geography curriculum during or after crises as well as it’s consequence on students’ general performance in geography.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to enhance and effectively collect data in this research work, the following questions have been put forward
In investigating the impacts of Jos crisis on effective implementation of geography curriculum in Jos south secondary schools, the following hypotheses have been formulated:
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work shall be useful to all that contributed and significant to stakeholders in education. The study shall therefore, be useful to the followings;
Educational administrators at local state and Federal levels by revealing some major societal factors that affect effective curriculum implementation which results to poor performance.
Religious institutions shall see this study as an eye opener to intensity efforts on peace advocacy instead of instigating crises because the impact is directly on the society; Teachers, students, parents and curriculum planners as it reveals the contribution of crises to the poor performance of students.
The general public will understand that societal conflicts (crisis) have direct negative consequences on the education of their children in schools. The research work is also significant to the Government to understand that crisis is one of the major causes of poor curriculum implementation and poor performances of students. This will make the government to do everything possible to ensure peaceful society.
Lastly, the research work can be useful to future researchers to conduct further investigations on similar matters as they concern the educational sector and also come up with new findings. Research can also be conducted in other parts of the state that had recently experienced such unrest.
1.7 THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This study is built on the ‘Conflict theory’ by Karl Marx (1818-1883). The Conflict theory emphasizes the role of coercion and power in producing social order. Karl Marx saw the society as fragmented into groups that compete for social and economic resources. Social order is maintained by domination, with power in the hands of those with the greatest political, economic and political resources.
Following Marx’s conflict, Antonio Gransci an Italian scholar argued that consensus to rule is achieved in large part through cultural hegemony which refers to the dominant group ability to attain consent to their rule through ideas, norms, values and beliefs.
Today, Conflict theorists find social conflicts between any groups in which the potential for inequality exist such as racial, gender, religious, political, economic among many others. They also noted that unequal groups usually have conflicting values and agenda, causing them to compete against one another. This constant competition between groups forms the basis for the ever-changing nature of society.
In this study, the conflict theory is useful because our society today is faced with up rises as a result of social conflict. The conflicts in our society have direct or indirect consequence on the school system and especially, curriculum implementation.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work covers seven (7) secondary schools in Jos South LGA and the areas of study include the followings;
The study is conducted in senior secondary schools located in the crisis areas of Jos south. The areas are; Agwan Doki, Dorowa/Zawan, Ngel, Sabon Gari, Bwandang, Kwang and Trade centre. The study centers on teachers and students of Geography of the following schools;
G.S.S. Bukuru, Zang commercial College, G. S.S. Gyel, Manje Y. Comprehensive College, G.S.S. Kwang, TCNN staff Secondary School,
Bukuru Technical College.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Crisis: A violent situation in which groups of people or states are involved in a serious disagreement or argument due to opposing ideas, feelings, opinions or wishes.
Curriculum: The planned experience or activities offered to the learner under the guidance of the school
Achievement: Level of performance in a given task on.
Society: An all encompassing structure with several units such as the family, school, church/mosque, markets among others.
Impact: Negative or positive effect (result) of an event, action or decision.
Implementation: The process of carrying out of a planned activity such as the curriculum.
Learning: The process of acquiring knowledge
Enrolment: Students enlisted to take some subjects in schools
Performance: Accomplishment to set academic objectives
Tension: Fear of the unknown as a possible threat to life in a violent situation.
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