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THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER PLANNING ON ACHIEVEMENT OF CORPORATE OBJECTIVE OF AN ORGANIZATION
The need for organization to achieve its corporate objectives brought about the adoption of manpower planning in their management process. It is hoped that effective manpower planning of their employees would enhance their performances thereby contributing effectively in achieving organizational objectives. The research examines the impact of manpower planning on achievement of corporate objectives of an organization (A case study of Delta Glass Company Plc, Ughelli.) and its impact on both the employees and the organization as a whole with a specified objective of looking at its contributions to achieving its corporate objectives via the improvement of skill and knowledge of staff in an organization to enhance job satisfaction. In conducting the research work, personal interviews and questionnaires method were used in data collection and data analysis was on simple percentage method which was administered to a sample 100 staff in an organization. Literature relevant to the study was extensively reviewed. This research work is important since worker’s performance directly or indirectly depends on how well an organization plans its manpower. From the findings of the research, the following recommendations were made: Every organization should endeavour to give manpower planning the attention it desires. Specialists in this area of manpower planning should be employed in companies/ organizations to handle this complex assignment so that the fruits of an effective manpower planning can be reaped by such organizations.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The problem of manpower planning on achievement of corporate objectives has received the attention of many experts, researchers, organizations as well as the government. This is because it constitutes a serious slowdown to the socio – economic development of the country and as well as organizations. It is in the light of this, that i have decided to examine how manpower planning will help in achieving corporate objective of an organization using Delta Glass company plc, Ughelli as a case study.
Organization is all about people. The centrality of people in the life of any organization is not subject to debate; hence manpower is the most important resources in all organization. This is what is referred to as manpower planning.
Manpower is the most important resource in an organization. This is because through it other resources are harnessed for the attainment of organizational goals.
Manpower planning can be defined as planning for the requirement of personnel in an organization for the near future. It entails an analysis of current and expected vacancies due to retirement, discharges, transfers, promotions, sick leaves, leave of absence or other reasons. It is an analysis of current and expected expansions or curtailment in department. (French 1974 in Onah 2000)
According to Nwankwo (2000), manpower planning can be defined into macro and micro types. Macro planning refers to the nation labour force and plans to utilize its resources more effectively. It is concerned with training and development plans initiated by the federal and state governments, aggregate supply projectors and resolving unemployment problems. Micro planning on the other hand is concerned with providing the right number and kind of people to accomplish an organization’s objective. This includes the assessment of current human resources, forecasting future needs, designing programmes to recruit and develop personnel and implementing national manpower programmes in the organization.
From the above definitions, we can deduce that manpower planning has to do with establishing functional manpower in an organization. Consequently, on the basis of the analysis and assessment the personnel agency then proceeds to make plans for internal transfers or reduction of manpower for training and development to meet the desired quality and quantity of the requisite skills and knowledge for advertising existing vacancies and if need be, for the recruitment of new staff or a combination of these processes.
Manpower planning is the process that helps organizations to provide the adequate human resources to achieve their current and future organizational objectives. Manpower planning is the most strategic of all human resource management functions.
Planning defines the sources, number and type of manpower needed to meet future work requirements. Predetermined strategies to attract and retain the best people are also laid down. Strategic development and utilization of employee’s capabilities, which yield best benefits to the company, are designed into the plan. Every organization plan its manpower needs just as it budgets the amount of money it needs to spend. Those organizations, whether private or public which do not have well established personnel departments or planning units in the administration, fall into the error of looking for staff when necessary. All organizations determines their manpower needs either on a short – term (one year) basis or on a long term (from two years to ten) basis.
However, for most organizations long term planning rarely exceed five years. Short- term planning is a yearly adjustment of the figures on the current payroll which goes with the actual annual budgeting in organization.
As it is known that planning is an analytical process involving various aspects so as to produce quality products and to offer best services, various plan excise such as determination of desired goals, assessment of the future in relation to the environmental changes, selection of activities, preparation of written plan document etc will have to be done, which will give rise to mobilization of human resources. The result of manpower planning is marvellous. This will be reflected in higher turnover, lower absenteeism, lower breakdowns, lower migration and more than anything else higher quality of work.
In today’s turbulent, often chaotic, environment, commercial success depends not only on staff training but also on employees using their full talents. One of the ways to achieve this is through motivation. No one ever does anything without having been motivated to do it. In an organization, unless the proper persons are motivated, the organizational objectives cannot be realised no matter how well the organizational machinery is set. According to Armstong (2003) “motivation is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. That management can offer to the individual the means of satisfying the need as an individual incentive to increase the individual productivity and achieve organizational goals. Employees who are not motivated will not produce goods or services efficiently, will make mistakes and mar the reputation of the company. On the other hand, enthusiastic, motivated and committed employees will work in a way that supports organizational goals.
Therefore, it is imperative and expedient for organizations to recognise manpower planning as an important aspect of its corporate planning process and so accord it the attention it deserves as well as giving the plan a financial effect on the annual estimates of the organization. As a result, most firms or organizations have gone a step further to appoint personnel advisers and directors. This underscores the strategic position of manpower in organization and the crucial desire by every organization to actualise their objectives.
Attainment of organizational objectives requires a lot of efforts on the part of management, having gotten the right type of materials to accomplish the task they have set out. The strategic problem of goal achievement is to get to the expected end without either being derail by poor management or dearth of expertise in the needed areas of the organization. Only a navigational instrument will surely help matters, this suggests the blending of the elements of good and effective management with the availability of skilful and talented manpower to achieve corporate objectives of enterprise. This underscores the strategic position of manpower planning; it is a core area which demands maximum attention from management. This does not suggest the docility of other factors or inputs of organization. The fact is that manpower can make up an organization, manpower planning cannot be sideline in an effort to achieve organizational goals perhaps, and this explains the failure of many organizations, while others succeed in the competitive market.
This project therefore, intends to examine manpower planning, discuss or diagnose strategies adopted by organizations in achieving their corporate objectives. Examine the problem areas and to provide recommendation or solution to the problem so far identified.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the word of S.G Odia in his paper “Manpower Development in Nigeria”, the manpower resource of any nation is a unique index of appraising a nation’s economic growth, development and in fact it’s economic worth”.
The same can be said at the organizational level, that is to say that manpower is the main stay of an enterprise. Long before now, emphasis has been on how to increase productivity through greater financial commitment and other inputs other than manpower. The neglect of manpower planning in the scheme of things has exposed many organizations to bad business climate in recent times. For example, the Nigerian Airways, Nigerian Railway Corporation and Nigerian shipping line.
As a result of the above, many firms especially in the private sector of the economy saw the direct need to pursue an integrated manpower planning and organizational objectives. If one recognises the strategic position of manpower in any organization, then efforts of every organizations must be geared towards the double barrels objectives of an effective manpower planning which is a pre- requisite for the attainment of corporate objectives of an organization which in this case is profit- making.
Human resources are very complex especially, when there is a large pool of them as in the case of Delta Glass company plc, Ughelli. Their mobility rate is very high and most often very unpredictable. Be that as it may, it is inevitable to have a plan which entails to a reasonable degree of exactness the manpower need of the company is to take care of exigencies as they occur from time to time.
The dialectics of manpower includes concepts such as manpower procurement, motivation, development and general staff welfare. A neglect of any of these areas always has a far reaching effect on the organization.
This research is aimed at having a critical look at the problem of dearth of manpower in some organizations as a result of lack of manpower planning in such organizations. It is also to see to the consequences of this as it relate to the achievement of the corporate objectives of an organization, using Delta Glass Company as my case study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objectives of the study are to examine the contribution of manpower planning to the achievement of corporate objective of Delta Glass company plc, Ughelli.
The specific objectives are as follows:
5 To know the impact of manpower planning on achievement of corporate objective.
6 To know the calibre of human resources required in an organization in terms of its performance, productivity, profitability, efficiency and effectiveness.
7 To find out the impact of budgeting allocation on manpower planning in an organization.
8 To determine how manpower planning will help to ensure the availability of the required manpower resources to be employed in the various department of an organization.
9 To proffer solutions to the problems of inadequate/ lack of manpower planning in an organizations.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is important in the sense that many organizations found themselves unable to achieve its corporate objectives as an organization. A search for solution to this problem informed the researcher to study the relationship between manpowerplanning and achievement of corporate objectives of an organization. As a result, the findings of this research will be of immense benefit to the business world as well as the academic world.
To the business world, it will form the basis for accepting or otherwise the important position of manpower planning in relation to the attainment of the objectives of an organization.
It will on the other hand contribute to the growth of human knowledge and helps to stimulate further study in areas not adequately addressed in this research especially glass technology.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are to guide the researcher towards finding out the solutions related to the problems, objective and the question of research. The function of a research question is to focus the attention of the researcher towards the problem he/she is solving. They are like road maps that guide his/her steps.
The research questions are
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research is aimed at finding out the relationship between manpower and attainment of organizational objectives. It shall deal with issues of manpower planning, the desirability of manpower planning as well as factors affecting manpower planning process and job analysis which is a prelude to an effective manpower planning in any organization.
All these shall be treated in relation to Delta Glass Company as it relates to the organizational goals and aspirations. However, occasional references shall be made to the organizational settings. It will only deal with the programme of actions for the personnel so as to ensure the right number of staff at the right time putting in their best for the actualisation of the company’s objectives within a given time.
1.7 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
It is very important to give a brief definition of the following key terms, in order to know the meaning of the key concept and some words in the research project.
In general sense, it refers to the totality of the energies, skills, attitudes and knowledge available to a country. But in economic sense “manpower is usually confined to persons who are of the same working age which conventionally refers to the broad age group of 18 – 55 years in Nigeria and 15 – 65 years in developed countries”. For the purpose of this study, manpower shall mean the totality of the human resources of Delta Glass Company plc, Ughelli.
Manpower planning as used in this work means the process of ensuring the availability of the human resources needed in the organization. This process involves the analysis of the levels of skills in the organization. The current and expected vacancies as a result of transfer, resignation, retirement of death. Manpower planning also involves the method of recruitment, development of existing manpower and motivation of the work force.
French (1990), defines the concept as a process of assessing an organization’s human resources need in the light of organizational goals and making sure that a competent stable work force is employed.
Achievement denotes the extent of performance of the organization or company in realising the corporate objectives of the organization. The achievement of an organization is generally its ability to satisfy the owners of the company vis – a – vis the corporate objectives of the company.
Achievement can however be measured in terms of maximization of the shareholders wealth through the improvement in its operations.
The word “Corporate” is derived from the word “Corporation”. Corporation also called Limited Liability Company is a specific legal form of organization of persons and material resources, chartered by the state for the purpose of conducting business. In effect, corporate objectives denote the overall objectives of the company as stipulated in its Articles of Corporation as a legal entity. As a commercial venture, the sole objective of the company is profit making. Every other thing is secondary and perhaps incidental to the organization.
Organization is a consciously co – ordinate social unit composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
It other words of Mc Shane (2000), an organization is a group of people who work interdependently towards some people.
Planning according to Conyers and Hills (1984), defined planning as a continuous process which involves decisions or choices about alternatives ways of using available resources, with the aim of achieving particular goals at same time in the future.
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