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THE IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA (2009-2014)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii
Approval page – – – – – – – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – v
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Research questions – – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research Objectives- – – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope of the study – – – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 28
3.2 Research design – – – – – – – – 28
3.3 Population of the study – – – – – – – 30
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – – – 30
3.5 Methods and source of data – – – – – – – 30
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND THE FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 31
4.2 Data presentation and analysis – – – – – – 31
4.3 The Impact of Terrorism on National Economic Development- – – 35
4.4 The Research findings – – – – – – – – 40
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
References – – – – – – – – – – 47
The overall aim of this research work is to examine the impact of terrorism on national economic development. Terrorism in whatever dimension poses threat and insecurities to human existence in regards to which defenseless nations live in perpetual fears and anxiety. Knowing fully well that Security is presently a major challenge in Nigeria and Nigerians are killed on daily basis in their numbers. Though the government claims to be on top of the situation but the problem still persists. The study made us of secondary source of data to obtain information for this research. The findings of this research are that there is no united effort in order to curb the menace of Boko Haram. It was recommended that there should be unity of effort in all areas, beginning with unity of effort on the challenge of counterterrorism itself, unifying strategic intelligence and operational planning against terrorists across the foreign-domestic divide with a National Counterterrorism Center, unifying the many participants in the counterterrorism effort and their knowledge in a network-based information sharing system that transcends traditional governmental boundaries.
The economic implications of the growing rate of violence and terrorism in Nigeria can be measured from different perspectives. The cost of destruction of property and national productivity are directly affected while there are longer term of indirect cost in confronting and curbing the menace. Not to be forgotten is the human cost, and that over 4,000 lives have been wasted terror attacks.The challenge of controlling violent crimes and terrorism have really been very expensive. Security operations have received the lion’s share of the 2014 budget, based on estimates submitted by the Federal Government yesterday. This is the third consecutive yearly budget that gives the security sector the highest allocation.
Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala submitted the N4.91 trillion appropriation bill to the two chambers of the National Assembly in Abuja Out of the total budgeted sum, about N1.1 trillion, representing 27 percent, is for capital expenditure, while N2.43 trillion will go for recurrent spending. The remaining amounts are for debt service, N712 billion; statutory transfers, N399.7 billion; and Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P), N268 billion. Government’s expected revenue target is N3.73 trillion, while the budget deficit stands at 1.9 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), slightly up from that of the 2013 budget, which stood at 1.85 per cent.
Daily Trust obtained a breakdown of the budget, showing recurrent allocations but no details of capital votes. A total of N845 billion was provided for recurrent and service-wide votes for the security sector, which includes the Armed Forces, Police, National Security Adviser’s office, and the para-military services. This amount excludes the capital votes for these agencies as those details appeared to be missing from the bill submitted by Mrs Okonjo-Iweala. If the capital vote is put at 27 per cent of the total for the security sector, then the security vote could hit about N1 trillion. This is about the same as the amounts received by the sector in two previous budgets of 2012 and 2013.
Based on the estimates submitted by the Finance Minister, recurrent allocation for Defence (including Army, Air Force and Navy), is N306 billion; police formation and commands, N286 billion; office of the National Security Adviser, N67 billion; Interior Ministry, N145 billion; and Police Affairs Ministry, N4.5 billion. Also part of the security spending are provisions under ‘service-wide votes’ for Nigerian Army Quick Response Group and arrears, N12 billion; and Operations-Internal for the Armed Forces, N24 billion. In the recurrent budget, education got the next highest allocation after security, with N373.4 billion. Others are Works, N28.5 billion; Petroleum Resources, N55.7 billion; Science and Technology, N24 billion; Power, N3.9 billion; and Justice N19.4 billion. Information got N22.4 billion, Foreign Affairs N46.5 billion, Agriculture N31.4 billion, Water Resources N7.7 billion, and Youth Development N75.9 billion. Office of the Secretary to the Government of the Federation is allocated N46.2 billion, Mines and Steel Development N10.6 billion, Lands and Housing N5.6 billion, Aviation N6 billion, and Finance N216.4 billion Other allocations include the Presidency with N25 billion, whereas the proposed National Dialogue will gulp N700 million, Stipends for 30,000 ex-militants is allocated N23.6 billion, with another N35.4 billion allocated for transformed ex-militants.
The cost of tackling terrorism in Nigeria also plunged us deeper into the mire of poverty and political destabilization, cankerworms that are already eating up the nation’s vast capital and material resources. In the bid of proffering a workable means by which they can be terminated. It is saddening to know that the recent state of insecurity in the country is happening at a time when most of the key industries in the country have become moribund. What is even more saddening is that struggle against terror is gradually affecting the transport and tourism industries which are key to foreign exchange earners, tax revenue generators, business opportunities for growing entrepreneurs and sources of employment.
Domestically, the fight against terrorism has caused a clamp down on the popular “Okada” business in states like Adamawa, Borno and Yobe, leading to the ban on the business in some parts of the these states. Secondly, interstate travel for business and other activities has been grossly affected. Indigenes of southern states of the country are becoming more afraid to visit the north and vice versa.
Internationally, Nigerians are now being treated with great suspicion. It is our opinion that the recent repatriation of some Nigerians by the South African and British governments may not be unrelated to events happening in Nigeria. To crown it all, foreigners are finding it hard to visit Nigeria. A country once believed to be “Giant of Africa”, and one of the most colourful countries in the world. The reason is not farfetched, no “Oyibo” wants to be kidnapped, neither do they want to be caught in the middle of a crossfire.
With the state of the nation now, one may not be considered to be totally wrong to say that terrorism and violent crimes have given Nigeria and Nigerians more bad labels in the last three years than corruption has done in the 51 years of nationhood. While we may continue to count the implications of the terrorism and violent crimes on our society and our economy, it is also necessary for us to begin to plot a new vista for our nation. True, failure of the government to act in ways that boost public confidence on such issues have been demonstrating, coupled with that, our system seems to be providing these destroyers of our society with more reasons to perpetrate their dastardly acts – the high rate of corruption in high and low places, the increase in unemployment among a majority of the nation’s youth, mass illiteracy-cum-ignorance and the hypocrisy of some traditional, political and religious leaders.
1.2 Statement of the Research problem
Terrorism in whatever dimension poses threat and insecurities to human existence in regards to which defenseless nations live in perpetual fears and anxiety. Knowing full well that Security is presently a major challenge in Nigeria and Nigerians are killed on daily basis and in their numbers. Though the government claims to be on top of the situation but the problem still persists. The effects of these acts of terrorism are the threats they posed to national security, peace, unity and development of the country. Incidences of terrorists’ activities have, by most accounts, provoked electric mix of insecurity and threat to socio-economic undertakings in recent time. Separating realities from emotions, economic analysts hold a view that in the event of wanton destruction of lives and property in any society, investments and other economic developments will suffer.
The Economic Confidential takes a critical look at the recent wave of terrorist activities in the country and the trend they hold for its economy. Generally, analysts agree that terrorism has a suppressive effect on an economy and study shows that it has actually never done any good in any part of the world. In Nigeria for instance, it is inadequate to mention terrorism in Nigeria without reference to the activities of Boko Haram, a terrorist group which has taken responsibility for most of attacks in some parts of the country.
The increase in terrorist activities has, by most analysts’ ratings, complicated the Nigerian business climate and made it investor-unfriendly. The impact of these nefarious activities on Nigerian economy has been intense so much that terrorist activities of the group have created a lot of distortions in the economic activities of the northern region.
The direct implication of this includes declining investor confidence and reductions in foreign direct investment. With reference to the 2012 Doing Business Data of the 183 economies sampled, Nigeria is ranked 133rd, maintaining the same ranking as that of 2011, an indication that no significant improvement hastaken place because of terrorist activities.
In the same manner, the World Bank Investment Climate Assessment Report for the 2011 fiscal period indicates that the Nigerian business environment in spite of the ongoing reforms, remain hostile. According to the report, investors are losing 10 percent of their revenue as a result of the hostile investment climate, poor quality infrastructure, crime, insecurity and corruption. It is against this background that the researcher intends to study the impact of terrorism on the Nigerian economy with a view of proffering solution to the problem.
The following are the research questions:
The main objective of this research is to study the impact of terrorism on the Nigerian economy. Other specific objectives include:
The following are the research hypothesis
H0: There is no significant adverse relationship between terrorism and economic development
Hi: There is significant adverse relationship between terrorism and economic development.
This research work will be of great importance to all the stakeholders involved, particularly in Nigeria. The study will be of great important to policy makers, security officers, government and the general public. The knowledge provided in this study will show the causes of Boko Haram, their impact to the economy and how they can be tackled. It is of the interest of the researcher that if this project will be strictly followed it will be a solution to the problem of terrorism in Nigeria.
It will also be of immense relevance to business men, entrepreneurs, companies, other business owners and managers because it will guide them on how to locate their business in a place safe from terrorist attack.
Also, this study would enlighten governments, Lecturers/academicians, colleagues in the academic and users of information and the public at large on the dangers of terrorism and how it can be tackled.
Finally, this study would add to existing notion and serves as useful preliminary materials for further study in the area of the study.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The research aimed at studying the impact of terrorism on the National economic development of Nigeria. The study will cover the period of 2009- 2014. This period was chosen because it was the period when terrorism attack was at its peak, most especially in 2014.
Most of time, research work are subject to certain constraints which constitutes some difficulties to such studies. Some limitations and problems were encountered on carrying out this study.
The problem of insufficient information is a major limitation of this study. This is due to the fact that you cannot see Boko Haram face to face talk more of getting information from them.
The information obtained from interviewing people was limited because people are afraid to supply information regarding Boko Haram. Adequate time prove to be a problem because of the other academics work. Moreover for this kind of research there is need for enough time to carry out the research.
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