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THE INCIDENCE OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SSS STUDENTS IN ESAN CENTRAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

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THE INCIDENCE OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SSS STUDENTS IN ESAN CENTRAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In recent times, the incidence of drug abuse is on the increase and experts in the area of drugs and health have indicated that if the trend of drug abuse is not controlled, the problems might aggregate into serious health problem. One sad aspect of this is that teenagers and children of school age are worst involved with this problem.

 

To say the least, the phenomenon of drug abuse is what individuals; government and society are generally interested in.

 

A drug is any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the organism.

 

A drug is a substance used for medical purposes, either alone or in mixture substance that changes the state of function of cells, organs or organism. Drugs are mood modifies which change the mood of individual per time. Drug abuse can be defined variously depending on the standpoint of the individual.

 

It could be seen as constant and indiscriminate use of both prescribed and legal and illegal drugs or the use of drugs without diagnosis and prescription, to an extent that it hinders ones health. Our health-oriented definition of drugs abuse is the self administration of a quantity or a pattern that impairs an individuals health or social or economic functioning.

 

Drug use and abuse or misuse is phenomenon, which has bothered, is bothering and will continue to bother mankind even in generation to come. Governments, religious organization, social groups, world bodies and concerned individuals in the world over are alarmed and indiscriminate and went on use and abuse of drugs and the implication to the individual health status. Drugs abuse world wind is said to have become a major social problems, which affect individuals at every socio-economic level as well as individuals in age group from the adolescent to the elderly.

 

For instance, Caliendo (1996) reports; an estimated 9.3-10.3 million U.S adults or 7% of the U.S. adult population are alcoholics or problems drinkers among teens and youth age 14-17 years old, this represents 19% of American youths.

 

The rate of alcoholic consumption is alarming.

 

Caliendo (1976) look at that; it has been estimated based on data obtained from USDH. Food balance sheet, that the average annual consumption of obsolete alcohol from beer, wine and spirit among the drinking age America public 2.6 gallons per individual. The caloric value of this quantity of alcohol is approximately 210 calories daily per son. The rate of alcohol consumption varies among individuals.

 

Many people do not consume any alcohol whereas many consume alcohol far in excess of the average. It is estimated, however that on the average, adult females in the United States derives to 10% of their RDA calories from alcohol whereas males obtain 7.5%.

 

This trend is similar globally.

 

ORIGIN OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE

 

The African society is a drug using one. We take in drugs daily as we eat food in form of herds, stems, roots, crops and cereal beverages. Ideally, we use drugs either in these aforementioned forms, or in refined forms for both preventive and curative purpose.

 

For certain ailments and diseases. In traditional African society which dates back even before recorded history, drugs are used daily for difference cultural and religious purpose of birth, death, marriage, and divorce rites.

 

Others are initiations into difference groups, appeasement of the gods. In concluding agreements for buying and selling of lands and landed property, apprenticeship agreements for teaching and learning of crafts and so on. Therefore, the use of drugs, in different forms and for different purpose permeates every facet of our traditional society and culture. Most of these drugs in their unrefined forms grow widely in our environment and hence there easy availability to the users. One can therefore say without fear of contradiction that the history of drugs abuse and misuse is as old as society itself or man.

 

The arrival of the ‘white men’ on the shores of African continent added yet more damaging drugs to the ones we already had and to that extent made the environment for drugs use and abuse friendly by easy availability and preference.

 

EFFECTS OF DRUGS USE AND ABUSE

 

According to Agwubike (1998) drugs are known to be chemical agents that affect living cells they are used in modern medicine, in the treatment of illness and disease.

 

Drug abuse has severe health implication. The incidence and severity of problems associated with the non-medical use of the drugs is incalculable. Alcoholism for instance is one of the most common types of under-nutrition in the adult. Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary factors related to the development of cirrhosis of the lever which according to Caliendo (1966), the ninth leading killer disease of the United States population.

 

Villabi et al (1991) report; Spain ranks second to France in international comparison of alcohol consumption, 52% of adults drinks daily, and mortality due to liver cirrhosis ranks as the sixth causes of death both in terms of death rates and potential years of life lost.

 

In addition to the liver problem and the nutritional, Caliendo (1976) has this to say, “Alcohol related deaths may reach as many as 205, 000 annually in the U.S. It has also been known to cause several health problem like congestion heart failure, high blood pressure, lose of appetite, inflammation of the stomach/pancreas, intestines which leads to nutrient matabsorption.

 

Another severe consequence of alcoholism worthy of mention is the effect it has on the offspring of a pregnant drinker. It is said in Britain alone that more than 44% of children born to alcoholic mothers had 10 below 80, as well as significantly higher rates of hearty and joint abnormalities.

 

Economically, it cost the government billions of petro-dollar if quantified in terms of man-hour lost as a result of drug associated problems. This affects our out-put by reducing productivity.

 

According to Caliendo (1976), … alcohol abuse in the United State cost almost $43 billion in 1975.

 

According to Agwubike (1998), a drug has damaging consequences to the body organ and systems e.g. some drugs damage the liver, kidney or adversely affect the central nervous system. In certain instances death may result. It also state ion his book that users of drugs spend a lot money in producing drugs to themselves.

 

DRUGS COMMONLY ABUSED

 

According to Agwubike 91998) drugs commonly abused by secondary school students are;

 

Amphetamines

Anabolic steroids

Marijuana

Cocaine

Heroine

Caffeine and others like alcoholic content etc. which have excitatory or inhibitory effect which are thought to enhance performance in sport by delaying the onset of fatigue or hasten recovery rate.

 

PREVENTION CONTROL OF DRUG ABUSE

 

In view of the adverse effect of drug abuse on the private and public health of the society, there is need to prevent and control the abuse of drugs. In order to achieve this, there should be both concerted and simultaneous efforts by government, religious and other concerned organizations.

 

There has to be drug education and re-education.

 

This education should be directed at the drugs using population especially adolescents in both secondary and tertiary institutions. The objectives should be to made available to them useful information on short term effect of drug use and abuse especially dependence producing drugs. This is necessary because most of the drug users do so because of ignorance of the area of using the mass media, school and other educational means for it to spread drug education. There should also be drug adult education to educate parents who will in turn continue to teach their wards at home the need to avoid drug abuse or the correct use of drugs.

 

World Health Organization (WHO) through its appropriate agencies should step up action both in term of education and in releasing funds for rehabilitation and various activities that will discourage drug use and misuse.

 

RESEARCH QUESTION

 

What are the factors responsible for drug abuse?

What category of secondary school students abuse drug more?

 

iii.                What are the types of drugs abused?

 

What are the effect of drug abuse?

 

PURPOSE OF STUDY

 

This research was carried out with a view;

 

To identifying the types of drugs that are commonly abuse by secondary school students

To point out conditions under which secondary school students take drugs

To highlight the reasons why secondary schools students indulge in the abuse of drugs

To educate secondary school students activities towards drugs involvement

To suggest and recommend ways by which the problems of drugs abuses can be controlled among secondary school students

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

Indiscipline among secondary school students in most cases has been blamed on

 

drug involvement.

 

The climate during competition game situation will undoubtedly be improved when secondary students are intimated with the implications of drug involvement.

 

It will enable the school authorities and sport organization to plan programme to suit secondary school students from various background.

 

It will reduce indiscipline among secondary school students and abuse of drugs.

 

Deviancy as well as delinquencies amongst minimum in school and society at large.

 

It will create a way to guide them to a meaningful life or drug free live.

 

This study will serve as a base for more research work on drug abuse among secondary school students.

 

DEFINITION OF TERM

 

Drug: Any substance that when taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions.

 

Drug dependence: A state, psychic and some time also physical, resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basic in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid this discomfort of its absence.

 

DEPENDENCE PRODUCING DRUGS

 

A drug having the capacity to interact with a living organism to produce a state of

 

psychic or physical dependence or both.

 

NON-MEDICAL USE OF DRUGS

 

The uses of dependence producing drugs other than when medically indicated.

 

Drug abuse: Is the constant and indiscriminately use of both prescribed and non-prescribed legal drugs or to the extent that it hinders.

 

Legal drugs: These are drugs statutorily allowed for use by law of the land.

 

Illegal drugs: Are drugs approved by a quantified physician for use by the patient.

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