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Secondary schools are established to educate students to enable them contribute to the economic, political and social cultural well, being of their country.  In Isu Local Government Area of Imo State, there appears to a hindrance in the realization of objectives of secondary school.  An important factor responsible for the non-attainment of the overall purpose of secondary school is due to inadequate motivation of staff.


Secondary schools teachers are different in sex and status.  However sufficient efforts are not made by the Government, proprietors and some parents to motivate the secondary schools teachers in Isu Local Government Area to teach the students.


Bulya (1992) assents that:- The Government is not left out in making the teachers feel inferior.


One of this is economic depression; the first group to bear the brunt is teacher.  I for see the year 200AD as the year teacher will go home with no pay if the economy continues to deteriorate as if there is no charge of altitude on the part of administrations of teachers welfare.  In the 1989 Budget, the Government had decreed that car refurbishing loan be given to desiring officers.  Deserving education officers teaching in secondary schools also filled from but non-benefited from the loan.  This game added to the teachers frustration.  Thus, the Nigeria teachers continue to render essential service to the nation without adequate compensation by the Government.


Thus, there is need to motivate teachers in Isu Local Government Area to enable them teach their students very well.  The teachers should be paid their salaries on time, the parents of students should not sunb teachers and the government should give car loans to the teachers, entertainment allowance and meal subsidy’s


Furthermore, Bulya (1992) observes that the delay is the payment of teacher’s salaries is responsible for the poor image of the teacher.  He added that in 1993, primary school teacher’s salaries were delayed in Gongola State for months old industrial action.  In the same year teachers in Bauchi Local Government Area appealed to the State Government to do everything possible to ensure that they were paid arrears of their two months salaries.


The non-payment of secondary schools teacher’s salaries on time makes it difficult for them to meet their family financial obligations at home.


Some of the teacher’s dress shabbily, some feel shy to introduce themselves as teachers while some families are no longer proud of their members taking up the teaching profession.  They see it as the last resort.


Hence, teachers need to be motivated by the government, proprietors, all and sundary to enable them perform in the secondary schools.


No wonder Okon and Anderson (1982) argued that since money provided power for it’s possessor, it has a double effect in lending status.  Money permits a person of wealth to exhibit a life style, which others may enjoy.  The person who is envied has a higher status than  the person who is pitied wealth can be obtained through salaries earnings so give the teachers their due that they may live and be envied by others.


Since teacher are very important in our secondary schools because they teach the students, there is need to motivate the teachers to enable them perform in teaching student in secondary school in Isu Local Government Area, Benin City.


Bolarinwa (1996) shows that academic performance of students in our schools is deters rating compared to the olden days because of the teacher.  He added that those responsible for this kind of change are the teachers and one of the reasons behind this could be the status of the profession in Nigeria now.


He added that many people see teaching as a job that could be done when there is no other choice.  There is no adequate encouragement for teachers who are in a position of steering the wheel of education of learners.  Teacher’s salary package is the least in the society compared to other profession, some administrators do not seen teaching as some thing government should spend so much on, they see it as a profession that gulp so much money and nothing to show for it.


Thus, most local government chairpersons pay more attention on award of contracts to their own benefits.  Since they do not care on how good contract is carried out, loss attention is paid to teacher’s welfare, salaries are paid when the chairperson likes.  Money allocated by federal government to local government on primary education were diverted and used on different projects.  Those eventually created a change in the quality of classroom instructions and the out put, since teacher’s salary were not paid for months.


Ogonor (2003) stated that: The Nigerian educational system


has suffered government.  In the period of financial constraint, the educational system bears the brunt at certain periods teachers salaries were unpaid for a period of about a few months.  In situations as stated teachers freely engaged in other activities unchecked while school was in session because there was no moral justification to call the neglected and hungry teachers to order.


Ogonor (2003) added that apart from irregular payment of teacher’s salaries many teachers have never had the opportunity or being sent on in-service training to up date their learning in competence for an up ward period of about ten years.  Hence many teachers are enabling to respond to current changes in curriculum and pedagogy.


In Nigeria, like in most developing countries the teachers are very important.  This is mainly because of the role they play in educating the students and in the political, social. Educational and economic development of the country, In addition to it’s traditional role of educating the student, it not only accounts for about 50% of Nigerian work force but also serves as instrument for development.


Regrettably however, while the teachers continues to increase in size and importance, it’s effectiveness and efficiencies have been on a serious decline due to lack of motivation.  Since the early-eighties, teachers commitment performance and productivity are on the decline while various reports of tribunals and commissions of inquiry point to the fact that most public sectors organizations in Nigeria are characterized by inefficiency, mis-management , corruption, wastage and abuse of office e.t.c federal republic of Nigeria, reports (1967) and Kano State reports (1975).  The aforementioned concern is further heightened taking into cognizance the fact that if teachers are poorly motivate, then they will not do their best possible in teaching the students in secondary school in Isu Local Government Area.  In the same heir, the academic performance of students will be affected in terms of poor performance in internal and external examinations as a result of their inability to complete their scheme of work due to industrial actions, work to rule or engaging in other business because they were not paid their monthly salaries for several months.


Ogonor (2003) Stated that the Nigerian educational system has suffered great neglect during the are of successive government.  In the period of financial constraints the educational system bears the brunt.  At certain periods teachers salaries were unpaid for a period of about a few months.  In situations as stated teachers freely engaged in other activities unchecked while schools were in session because there was no moral justification to call the neglected and hungry teachers to order. She added that apart from irregular payment of teachers salaries many teachers have never had the opportunity of being sent on in service training to up date their learning in competences for an up ward period of about ten years.  Hence many teachers are unable to respond to current changes in curriculum and pedagogy.


Thus, in Nigerian, like most developing countries, the teachers are very important.  This is mainly because of the role they play in educating the students and in the political, social, educational and economic development of the country.  In additional to it’s traditional role of educating the student it not only account for about 50% of Nigeria work force but also serves as instrument for development.  Regrettably however, while the teachers continue to increase in size and importance, its effectiveness and efficiency have been on a serious decline due to back of motivation.  Since the early-eighties, teachers commitment, performance, and productivity are on the decline- while various reports of tribunals and commission of inquiry point to the fact most public sector organization in Nigeria are characterized by inefficiency mismanagement, corruption, wastage and abuse of office e.t.c.


(federal Republic of Nigeria Reports 1067) and Kano State Reports (1975). Garba (2001) asserted that the use of Incentive to motivate an employee Is however, by no means recent but has acquired more popularity in recent times.  The parameters of incentives employed by organization include use of money provision of amenities  and fringe benefits, Involvement in decision making use of such factors as job security and promotion. Further more, motivation has an impact the performance of secondary school teachers.  They can be motivated in different ways depending on the ways employed by the government and school administrators.


Musa (1997) Stated that the delay in the payment of salaries of teachers and other Fringe benefits are sufficient evidence for this non-challant attitude to teachers Welfare.


He added that the non payment of teacher’s salaries has far reacting consequences on our educational system and its products.  Outstanding among these consequences is the falling standard of education.  When teachers go on strike the effect is not fact immediately, so the government does not car, the parents do not care and the children rejoice that they are idle and free.  The effects are however felt later. Kayode (1996) stated that ironically, even on occasions when the economy is buoyant one still discovers that teachers continue to constitute the least paid workers- beast of burden, Invariably, therefore, teachers are unwillingly to teach or remain in the profession due to lack of motivation, sheer want of devotion, commitment and lack of appreciation of their worth by the society. The situation was not different in Imo State in 1982, 1999 and 2002. The result was that some teachers in secondary schools in Isu Local Government took up menial jobs as financial coping techniques, withdrew their children from foe paying schools to non-fee paying owns while others wish they could opt for other jobs.  Hence it becomes clear that there is low percentage of teachers who could be said to be actually teaching effectively at any given time.  Hence Kayode (1996) remarked that if you feed teachers with peanuts, you should expect nothing but monkeys.


In this regard, the researcher would therefore attempt to determine the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State




For an effective and functional secondary educational to be achieved therefore, the need to take cognizance of the performance of the imputs (teachers in this context) is very essential.  However, in view of the unhealthy government, private proprietors and school administrators attitude towards making much impact to motivate teachers to perform in secondary schools, it could be rightly asserted that delay in payment of teachers salaries, poor condition of work, lack of job security, non payment of entertainment allowance and meal subsidy, grant of car loans among others are responsible for the lack of motivation of teachers.


Angulu one time Registrar of Ahmadu Bello University, Speaking at the graduation ceremony of ATC/ABU, Kano 1981/82 session: he said: “The teaching profession in Nigeria has lost its glamour, social status and respect due to lack of incentive for the teachers” Thus, the teaching profession has never been a lucrative one since the teachers neither had the social status nor the money.  Hence the poor treatment given to teachers in the society ha caused immense concern to parents, ministry of education and the society at large. The researcher therefore wishes to examine the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State.  The following questions are to be investigated.


  1. Are the secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government area motivated to perform their jobs according to the standard set by the Government?


  1. To what extent do the government and private proprietors motivate the teachers to do their jobs?


  1. To what extent does the school management motivate the staff to do their jobs?


  1. Is there any difference in the factors motivating the staff job performance between male and female teachers?




The secondary school teachers are not effectively motivated to enable them do their best possible in teaching students in secondary schools, in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State. Bulya (1992) Stated that the secondary schools teacher did not fair better.  Many of them went without salaries for months.  This non-payment dented the image of the teaching profession in no small measure.  Teachers became borrowers and debtors.  Some took to secondary jobs that were very mean like motor cycle hiring services while many     others went into petty trading hawking and peasant farming.  Virtually there were no difference between the teacher and a peasant illiterate. The aforementioned situation was the case in Bendel State in 1982, 1989 and in Imo State in 2003. Thus, Kayode (1996) in his study observed that:


The government at various levels and time pretend not to know the Priority of the people they government else how would Local Government Chairman prefer award of contracts for office and road renovation to ensuring that primary schools are properly equipped and teachers salaries are promptly paid.  No serious attention is paid to enhance the status of teachers, even projects and activities.


However, teachers are not will motivated to enable them improve on their performance in teaching the students in secondary schools.


The purpose of this study, therefore was to find out the impact of motivation of teachers performance in secondary schools.  Specifically the study, attempts to find out if the secondary school teachers are motivated to do their jobs according to the standard set by the Government, the extent to which the teachers are motivated by the Government/proprietors, the extent to which the school management motivate the staff to do their jobs and if there is a significant difference in the motivation of male and female in the performance of their jobs.




The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to secondary school teachers, principals, Heads of Departments, Government, Policy makers, supervisors , Curriculum planners and tertiary institutions.  In the same view it will be of great help to various States Federal Government and school proprietors so as to improve on their various ways of motivating the teachers to enable them do their best possible.




For the purpose of this study the following assumptions have been made.  It is envisaged that every secondary schools in all the sampled schools are of the same setting and standard.  The students of the sampled schools are competent enough to give reliable in formation on the impact of motivation on teachers performance in secondary schools




In an attempt to carry out the research work, the following research statements are formulated to guide the researcher in the study.


  1. The secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area are not motivated to perform their work according to the standard set by the Government.


  1. To what extent does the Government and private proprietors motivate the teachers to perform their duties?


  1. To what extent does the school management motivate the teachers to perform their duties?


  1. There is no difference in the factors motivating the staff job performance between male and female teachers.






The study covered twenty schools in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State.  The school were selected through random sampling technique in order to examine the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area of Imo State.  If the teachers in Isu Local Government Area are motivated to perform their duties, the extent to which the Government and private proprietors motivate their staff to perform their duties.  The study also covered extent to which school management motivate the staff and if there is any difference in the factors motivating male and female teachers in the performance of their jobs.




  1. Motivation – I t is the act of encouraging people to do something or act in a particular way by giving them gifts, incentives or rewards. In this context it refers to giving teachers gifts, promotions and allowing them to participate in the administration of the school.


  1. Impact – I means to give a quality to something.


  1. Performance – It is the process or manna of performing duties, outstanding action or achievement.


  1. Secondary schools – It refers to institutions for educating children.


  1. Teachers – It refers to people who teach especially in a school.










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2.0    Introduction

This chapter reviews works of different authors and scholars on the topic motivations and their impact on employee productivity. The chapter looks at various definitions of leadership, motivations, factors to consider in selecting motivations, relationship between leadership and motivation, types of motivation etc.


2.1    Concept of Leadership

          Leadership has been viewed from different perspectives by various writers.

According to Cole (1999) as quoted by Hassan (2009) posit that “leadership is a dynamic process of work in a group, whereby one individuals influences the other group members to commit themselves freely to the achievement of group tasks or goals, over a particular period of time”. Cole’s definition encompasses four important features;

  1. Leadership is a dynamic process, influenced by the ever-changing requirements of the environment and the tasks, the group itself and its individual members. Therefore there is no “one way” of leading.
  2. Leadership is sharing, necessarily confined to one person or member, but may be shared between members. Some leaders, according to Mintzberg (1973), are more figure heads
  3. Leadership as influencing; the principal role is to influence the group voluntarily towards goal directed behavior
  4. Leadership is a product of circumstances; which form the organizational context. Fielder (1972) points out that this context has important implications for the degree of power possessed by the leader.


Koontz and Weihrich (2005) states that “leadership is an influence, that is, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals”.


Kreitner (2002) posit that “leadership is a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organization objectives”.


Jones and George (2006) postulate that “leadership is the process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals”.


According to Robbin and Coulter (2007), leadership is what leaders do. More specifically, it is the process of influencing a group to achieve goals”.


Klath, Maxwell and Bob (1995) looked at leadership “as that which has to do with personality”.


Conneli (2001) see leadership “as one, which is influenced by circumstances and environment”.


Auren (1998) opines that “leadership is the ability of a leader to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically”.


Edward (2002) in his contribution defines leadership “as a process whereby one individual exert influence over others with the aim of making them perform”.


Jack (2002) sees leadership “as a process of directing and inspiring employee to perform the assigned task of the organization.


Jack further believes that since great leaders are born, not made and because this study is concerned with organization leadership in employee and influence and inspired to achieve a set goal for the organization, it is then pertinent to appreciate why motivation is necessary in an organization. This implies that, for an organization to achieve its objectives, it needs a motivation that can adequately suit the organizational set up.

Various authors cited leadership as an influence by one person towards an individual or group in which an individual or group willingperforms to achieve set gals. Leadership has mostly been viewed in terms of education and training rather than the leaders’ capacity and potentials, and because leadership is not all about the title but by developing the self and maximizing the potentials of an individual. This explains why certain leaders fail in leading their subordinates in that, they believe the leadership comes by chance and they do that without minding the result of their approaches and its effect on the employee.


2.2    Motivations

This refers to the various behavioural tendencies favoured by leaders during the process of directing and influencing employee towards attaining the organizational objectives.


Consequently, over the years, experience shows that leader often go for a particular style that can conveniently solve their problems; rather than sticking to a particular style that might not achieve result at the end of the day.


Klath, Maxwell and Bob proposed four types of motivation and this include;

  • Autocratic motivation: This emphasis commanding and domineering attitude towards subordinates, this is where a leader often makes decisions and imposes them on his subordinates who are often entrusted with relatively little authority and responsibility. For this reason, the autocratic leader is usually referred to as authoritarian.
  • Persuasive motivation: This is semi autocratic; such a leader feels that he is master of the game. He has his own ideas but wants the blessing of his colleagues and subordinates. This kind of leader will always want his colleagues to at times legalize the illegalities.
  • Democratic motivation: This usually implies consensus decision making and a high degree of support from the leader. The democratic leader stimulates group thinking and cohesiveness through objectivity. The democratic leader considers the views and contribution of others before reaching or taking a decision. Opinions are taking, views and ideas reached, but the final decision rest with the leader.
  • Laissez Fair motivation: Is the carefree leader whooften surrenders his authority to his subordinates. This kind of motivation is also referred to as free reign usually involves little task directed by the leader, thus implying freedom in decision making on the part of subordinates.


Furthermore, according to Klath, out of these four motivation proposed the one advocated most is the democratic style because of its consensus in decision making approach, which implies that a leader is able to influence others to perform better when such individuals are involved actively in carrying out the organizational functions.


Dep (1998) in his own contribution, proposed three (3) basic motivation. These include:

  1. Democratic motivation: It is also known as participative motivation. This kind of leader believes that rather than the use of power or authority to pressurize subordinates into compliance, they depend on the use of persuasion to influence. Personal commitment replaces obedient as the moving force. This further shows:
    • Decision making is share by the leader and the group
    • Criticism and practice are objectively given
    • The feeling of responsibilities is developed within the group
    • Quality and productivity are generally high
    • New ideas and changes are welcome by the leader
    • When the leader is forced to make a decision, his reasons are explained to the group


  1. Autocratic motivation: This refers to the type that is dictatorial or authoritarian in nature, the leaders dominant approach in directing activities, make use of direct and implied pressures. This type of motivation is associated with the following:
    • The leader is a diacritic (all of his becomes law) and must be obeyed
    • He is very conscious of his position
    • He has very little trust and faith in his subordinates
    • He feels that pay (wages) is a just reward for work and is the only reward that motivates employee.
    • He gives orders and demands that they be carried out no question, no explanations.
    • Group members assume no responsibilities for productivity and merely do what they are told.


  1. Laissez Faire motivation: This style gives a major part of the task and responsibility of the employee job satisfaction, and will no doubt suffer because employee can become so contented with low standard and their own autonomy (freedom) that they may begin to feel little need to perform. This is also noted with the following:
    • The leader has no confidence in his leadership ability
    • He does not get goals for the group or organization
    • Decision making is performe by whoever is willing to accept
    • Productivity is generally low and work is slopping
    • The group has little interest in their work in terms of attaining success
    • Morale and team work are generally low


This motivation while effective in some circumstance has however, been criticized for being too specific.


According to Auren (1998) there is no one best motivation or behavioural tendencies. He further believes that the way a leader behaves or relate with his subordinates or employee is predominantly dictated by the prevailing circumstances at the time of his leadership. This means that, the character or personality trait counts, but they are often determining by the situation at hand.

In view of the various motivations identified by different writers, it is worthy to note that each style has a particular situation in which it can appropriately fit in, for instance, the democratic style can only be applicable if the situation demands a diplomatic approach, and autocratic will perfectly fit in when employee will have to be forced to perform a particular task. The benevolent is the type that despite making his decision, still finds reason to explain to his subordinates in order to have his way. Therefore, circumstances and situation determine the right motivation to be adopted by a leader, this is because no particular style can be said to be a perfect among all the styles propounded by numerous authors.


2.3    Fielders’ Situational Approach to Leadership

Research findings indicate that the situation in which a leader operate determine his motivation. Therefore, Fielder developed a leader situation model in his contingency theory of leadership effectiveness.


Nwachukwu (2004) “assert that the theory was based on a wide range of different situations, and concentrate on the relationship between leaders and organizational productivity”. In attempt to measure the behavior of the leader, Fielder developed a least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale. This measures the grading given by leaders about the individual when they could work least well.


Furthermore, Fielder advises that leaders behavior depend on the favourability of leadership situation. These three (3) main variables can determine the acceptance of the given situation that affects the leaders influence. They include:

  • Leader-Subordinate Relation: The extent to which the leader is relief upon and preferred by the group members and their willingness to comply with the leader directives.
  • The function structure: Here, the extent to which the role is clearly defined for the group and the degree to which it can be performed through detailed instructions.
  • Leadership power: The final, cover the leader formal power to reward, sanction or obtain compliance from the subordinates.


In conclusion, Fielder believes that the above listed variables are capable of determining the level of response of the situation that affects the leadership influence on his subordinates.


2.3.1 Harsey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory

Hassan (2009) asserts that the style of leadership adopted by the manager is dependent on the nature of the subordinate. This theory focused on the followers or group and their ‘readiness’. They define readiness as the degree to which followers who accept or reject the leader and that regardless of the effort of the leader, success depends on the followers. Harsey and Blanchard described four specific leader behaviours. From highly directive to laissez faire. They also divided readiness R into a continuum of four levels, R1R4.


R1 (Low Followers Readiness) refers to followers who are both unable and unwilling. They lack commitment and motivation. These types of subordinates are also unable and insecure. In this situation, the leader needs to give clear and specific directions. In other words, the leader ‘tells’ which emphasizes high amount of guidance that is, tasks behaviour which limited supportive behaviour.


R2 (Low to Moderate Readiness) refers to followers unable and unwilling. These followers lack ability but are motivated enough to make an effort. If followers are unable and unwilling, the leader needs to display high concern for the organization to compensate for the followers lack of ability and high concern for the followers to get the followers to buy into the leader desires. The leader ‘sells’ by emphasizing high amount of direction and relationship behaviour.


R3 (Moderate to High Follower Readiness) explains followers who are able but unwilling. These types of followers have the ability, but lack the necessary motivation or will to perform. Where followers are able, but unwilling the leader needs to apply both supportive and ‘participative’ style of emphasizing high amount of two way communication and supportive behaviour with low amount of guidance.



R4 (High Follower Readiness) refers to follower who are both unable and unwilling. They have the ability and commitment to perform tasks. If subordinates are both unable and unwilling then the leaders need not do much. The leader ‘delegates’ by emphasizing little direction or support, with low level of both concern for tasks and relationship. Put differently, the leader should allow subordinates to work within defined limits and get out of the way.


Harsey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Continuum suggests effectiveness of a leader is contingent on the readiness of the subordinates. The import here is to help in developing the readiness of subordinates to the degree of their ability and willingness. The model derive its importance in the development of the ability, confidence and commitment of subordinates, by adjusting or shifting behaviour of the leader from telling, selling, participating and delegating.


2.4    Factors to Consider in Selecting Motivation

To adopt a motivation, certain factors need to be considered. This is in view of the fact that such factors may either make or mark the success of the motivations.


Dep (1998) in support stated that these factors should work either against or for the success of any motivation. This in effect means that, when leaders, adopt a particular style without considering those elements that might militate against its success, which may eventually lead to the failure of such motivation.

Dep further stated that, leaders have come to realize that what is favourable to one organization may not favour another, and so believe that the one that is more likely to favour their organization is to be adopted. He added that, the personality of a leader can determine his preference for a particular style of leadership. This means that aggressive leader for instance, may prefer an autocratic motivation, this is because it can suit his personality, the same equally applies to a diplomatic leader who may prefer the democratic style, which is also in line with his personality.


Aghato (1999) in his submission believes that the size of workforce in an organization determines the kind of motivation that will be appropriate for that organization. This in effect will show how a leader is able to carry his employee along.


Auren (1998) assets that the nature of an organization is of importance in deciding the motivation the leader is to adopt; this he maintained will give the leader the idea on which of the style can work in the organization bearing in mind the operations of the organization. For example, an autocratic motivation will perfectly suit an armed officer, this is because it has been the culture of the military to always obey and act whether wrong or right. Moreso, the fact that military men are mutually hard, it becomes easier for the leader to adopt autocratic style.


Therefore, for a leader to select a particular motivation that can suit his organization, he must be able to consider the above factors thereby ensuring it workability. In other ward, the leader should examine the possibility of that motivation he is adopting and how such style would assist him in achieving the organizational objectives.


2.5    Relationship between Leadership and Productivity

Effective leadership is one, which is able to inspire the employee to perform. For a leader to influence his subordinates, he must understand the simple logic of how a leader succeeds and why others fail, but most often, leaders fail to appreciate the fact that their principles determine either the success or failure of their motivation, this is in view of the fact that they go about applying values without actually examine whether it could work or not.


In the word of Aghato, a leader can initiate action, induce his employee to engage in it, and then direct the action towards achieving the goals, that way, he is performing the primary function of a leader. This means that, the leader should understand the tasks and then take a bold step towards it, and then he must convince his subordinates to partake in it and finally direct them towards achieving that goal.


Conneli (2001) in his contribution indicate that even the productivity of a leader are affected by element like the environment. This is indeed an element that can undermine the productivity of a leader in an organization. For instance, a democratic oriented leader in the UnitedState may not be able to perform if transferred to another country with authoritarian culture and vice-versa.


Similarly, a leader must be ready to conform to the environment in order to succeed. Moreso, societal and cultural values are equally another possible barrier that can militate against a leader productivity.


Auren further asserts that a leader must be able to understand and appreciates the cultural as well as belief of a given society or community to enable him creates the conducive atmosphere that would inspire his subordinates to perform. This in essence means that, his motivation may not go down well with the host community he is operating in. a close example of this is the crises in Niger-Delta oil region. This is a clear indication of the failure in terms of policies formulation of both the government and the motivation of various oil companies operating within the region.


2.6    Leadership and Motivation

Leadership is said to occur when an individual gets another to look up to for some predetermined goals.


Hassan (2009) postulate that motivation is the generic term giving to the entire set of needs, wishes, drives, desires, and similar forces that push people to action. He further explain that when managers motivate their subordinates, they do things that they hope will satisfy these drives and desires, and induce them to act in a desired manner. Moreso, motivation is a process through which people select courses of action in order to achieve their personal goals. It deals with the physiological process of giving behavior purpose and direction.


Furthermore, motivation is therefore, concerned with the underlying question of; why people do what they do? Or what pushes people to act in certain ways? Simply, motivation explains the driving force or commitment behind the reasoning for why people do things. To motivate is provide people with reason to act in certain ways.


In order for leadership and motivation to enhance greater productivity, therefore, the leader must understand this; it is useful to review some of the theories of motivation. Since, the theoretical perspective is expected to shed more light on how motivation influences employee productivity. Many authors have written different theories of motivation to be used in motivating employee but for the purpose of this study, the hierarchy of needs by Abraham Maslow and the theory X and theory Y by Douglas McGregor which are content theory of motivation will be examined.


According to Maslow (1954) as quoted by Hassan (2009) human behavior is influenced by a hierarchy of five needs. The most basic of which is the physiological needs, (i.e. life sustaining needs). Once these needs are satisfied they ceased to be paramount. Individuals then move to the next set of needs. They can consider personal security (safety), and when physiological and safety needs are met, they proceed to love social needs (belonging and relating to others). Having satisfied these needs, we move to the higher need for esteem, and finally for personal growth (self-actualization). Maslow proposed that as individual satisfy a specific need they shift their attention to the next highest hierarchical need. He maintained that these needs are generally fulfilled in their order (pyramid) except in some special circumstance, where there can be a reversal of the order. For example, a middle level executive that losthis job may suddenly discover that personal growth no longer matters but safety needs.









Source: (Hassan, 2009)


Therefore, the ability of a leader to identify the dominant needs of the employee has to do with how well this hierarchy of needs motivates. In order for the leader to influence the motivation process, he must know or have a good assessment of what each individual need is, and then work towards satisfying those needs by creating the atmosphere for such for the benefit of the employee and the organization. Moreover, the productivity of the employee will depend largely on how well they are motivated by the leader.


However, in what appears to be a contrast of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor developed theory X and theory Y.

According to McGregor’s (1957) as quoted by Hassan (2009) when he labeled a focus on the incompetence or lack of commitment of workers as “Theory X”, the basic assumption of which is that people dislike work and are lazy. Managers that accept this assumption reduce their roles as that of coercion, intimidation, manipulation etc. In other words, they adopt a stick, rather than a carrot approach to managing. McGregor offer “Theory Y “as the flip side of the coin, which assumes that employees do actually like work. Manager’s role here is to provide an enabling environment for workers to thrive.


The crux of theory X and theory Y is that the way manager’s motivates their people is influence by their attitudes towards them. McGregor’s observation of manager’s attitudes therefore, falls into two opposite sets of assumption which he referred to as theory X and theory Y.


Theory X Assumptions

  • Employees inherently dislike work and will attempt to avoid it
  • Employees must be forced, controlled or threatened to achieve organization’s goals
  • Employees avoid responsibilities
  • Employees lack ambition and place emphasis on security
  • Employees’ primary motive is money and fear


Theory Y Assumption

  • Employee’s like work just as they would play and rest
  • Employees naturally work toward goals and self control to which they are committed
  • Employees can learn to accept and even seek responsibility
  • Employees are capable of using a relatively high degree of creativity and imagination to solve problems
  • Employees also make good decisions not only manager


Unfortunately, McGregor found that most managers subscribe to theory X. Many still believe that employees cannot be fully trusted and need to be closely supervised and controlled. He offered that, theory Y fully captures the nature of workers and should guide the practice of management. Rather than emphasizing authority, direction, close supervision and control, there should be an atmosphere in which workers can freely set their objectives, use their initiative, be creative, and flexible.


Moreso, despite this shortcoming, the theory proved to be of great value not only by creating and reorienting leaders thinking and managerial practice, but also by influencing leaders and behavioural scientists to seek between ways of understanding the motivational process in organization.


2.7    Types of Motivation

          There are two types of motivations; they include:

2.7.1 Intrinsic motivation:This refers to internal factors that influence people or an individual to behave in a particular way. These factors include; feeling of self esteem, autonomy, challenging work and opportunities for attainment of goal.


Nwachukwu (2004) opines that we, an individual strives to achieve a goal, the instinct in him is been stimulated to continue yearning for that goal. This simply means that, people developed an urge for something right from their inside and it only manifest when such desires are achieve.


  • Extrinsic motivation: They are those external factors that influence an individual to motivate him. These factors include, rewards such as wages, promotion and recognition etc. Here Nwachukwu further believes that, for an individual to be motivated certain factors drives those needs in order to actually satisfy such needs. This implies that the individual is being motivated by another to influence him to perform in order to achieve a goal.


Spitzer (1996) as quoted by Hassan (2009) viewed that extrinsic rewards at times fails and this can be attributed to the following reasons why monetized and incentives rewards fail to motivate employees.

  • When emphasis is placed on monetized rewards
  • When employee view entitlement to be their rights
  • When rewards for performance is delayed
  • When certain employee are layoff or cutoff entitlements.


2.8    Leadership and Decision Making

Leadership has been seen as a process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group towards attainment of set goals.


Hassan (2009) postulated that “decision making is the cognitive process of making choices among several varying alternatives with the aim of achieving stated objectives in the face of risks, certainties and uncertainties.


He further explains that decision making is one of the important aspect of management engaged in by managers. It is the essence of their jobs. Virtually everything that happens in the organization involves making and implementing decisions. The entire business process is centered on decision making. Management makes both long (strategic) and short term (tactical and operational) decisions.

Decision making affect all aspects of it managerial functions. In leading, the manager’s decision is one the style of leadership to apply to each situation, how to handle motivation and the changes necessary to influence employee productivity, when to stimulate and how best to handle conflict.




Types of Decisions

Hassan (2009) suggested two types of decision situations programmed and non programmed decisions.


Programmed Decisions

In a programmed decision, the manager is making decisions that are familiar, frequent and repetitive in nature. The decision making process follows a regular routine and standard operative procedure. Programmed decisions are made for r recurring and easily identified problems in accordance with stated policies, rules and procedures and are usually handled by middle and low level managers. These types of decisions are usually fairly structured, simple and certain.



Non Programmed Decisions

As opposed to programmed decisions, non programmed decisions are unstructured, frequent, unique, complex and non-routine in nature. In non programmed decision situations, managers are extremely careful, because they are dealing with problems are unusual and exceptional. Thus, they invest a large amount of their time and efforts. The decisions also require special attention and customized solutions. Non programmed decisions are usually handled by senior managers and top management of the organization.







Question one

Does motivation have a strong impact on the performance of students?

Table one

S/N0 Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 178 89
No 22 11


89% of the population agreed that motivation have a strong impact on the performance of students. 11% said no




Question two

Is improved motivation an effective means in influencing the performance of students?

Table two

S/N0 Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 121 60.5
No 79 39.5


60.5% of the respondents said that improved motivation is an effective means in influencing the performance of students. 39.5% disagreed.

Question three

Is there a relationship between motivation and the performance of students?

Table three

S/N0 Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 109 54.5
No 91 45.5


54.5% of the population said that there is a relationship between motivation and the performance of students. 45.5% said no.

Question four

How would you categorize the relationship between motivation and the performance of students?

Table four

S/N0 Respondents Percentage (%)
Strong 125 62.5
Yes 75 37.5


62.5% of the population said it is strong. 37.5% of the population said it is weak

Question five

Would you advise an increased spending on motivation of students?

Table five

S/N0 Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 188 94
No 12 6


94% of the population said that they advise an increased spending on motivation of students. 6% said no




Summary and conclusion


5.1 Summary

Hassan (2009) asserts that “communication is the transmission of information from one person, group or organization to another. It is the transfers of ideas or knowledge in ways that enable the recipient to understand, react and act on the information received.


According to Davies (1981) as quoted by Hassan (2009) “communication is the transfer of information and understanding. He further explains that it is a social activity involving two or more people that seek to transfer ideas and thoughts. Therefore, communication is the transference and understanding of meaning among people in, or members of an organization.

Therefore, leaders should be able to communicate subordinates effectively by using the appropriate communication channel depending on the type of message and work to be done in order for employee to be productive.



5.2 Conclusion

From the works of scholars, it was realized that motivation boost employee productivity when motivation, decision making and communication are properly implemented by the leadership at the situation and circumstances in order to know the type of motivation to be adopted.







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