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THE STATE OF THE ART ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE PROVISION AND CONTROL
The study investigates and assesses the provision and control of educational resources and its effect on students’ academic performance in Lagos education district II. The study was a descriptive survey of correlation type. The sample of respondents for the study comprised of male and female principals and teachers in all the sampled schools for the study. However, simple random sampling procedure was adopted to select twenty-five (25) respondents (principals and teachers) from each school, making a total of One Hundred and fifty (150) respondents for the study. A questionnaire entitled “Educational Resource provision and control Questionnaire” (ERPCQ) was used to elicit information from the principals and teachers of the sampled secondary schools while the final results of senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) for three years (2010 to 2012) session was also used to determine the students’ academic performance. Four research questions were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistic technique was used for testing the hypotheses. The result of the study revealed that a significance relationship exist between educational resources variables such as human resources and physical resources have significant effect on students’ academic performance while financial resources has no significant effect on students’ academic performance. Based on the result of the study, the following recommendations were made, among others: resources need for education should be made available by the government, non-governmental organization and private individuals. Principals in senior secondary schools should be encouraged to have postgraduate degree in educational management. Teachers should be given more opportunity for capacity development through seminar, workshops and access to e-library.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education in its general sense is a form of learning which the knowledge, skills and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of other, but may also be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks feels or acts may be considered educational. Formal schooling or education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship. However, education has been identified as a vital tool for any nation’s development; it has great social benefits especially in the modern, complex industrialized societies. Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devolved to it greats deal of attention. Accordingly, various theories regarding its nature and objectives have come into being. Thus, the right to education has been recognized by various governments. At the global level, article 13 of the United Nations’ 1966 international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights recognizes the right to everyone to an education. In most countries today, education is compulsory for all children up to a certain age.
Education acts as integrative force in society by communicating value that unites different sections of society. The family may fail to provide the child the essential knowledge of the social skills and value of the wider society. The educational institutions can help the child to learn new skills and learn to interact with people of different social backgrounds. Individuals must have personalities shaped or fashioned in ways that fit into the culture and norms of the society. Education has the functions of the formation of social personalities. Education also helps in transmitting cultures through proper molding of social personalities in this way; it contributes to the integration to survive and reproduce them. Moreover, education aims at reformation of attitudes wrongly developed by children already. For various reasons the child may have absorbed a host of attitudes, belief and disbelief, loyalties and prejudices, jealousy and hatred, etc. these are to be reformed. It is the function of education to see that unfolded beliefs, illogical prejudices and unreasoned loyalties are removed from the child’s mind, though the school has its own limitation in this regards, it is expected to continue its effort in reforming the attitudes of the child. Educational institutions instills co-operative values through civic and patriotic is upon personal competition. Conferring of status is one of the most important functions of education. The amount of education one has is correlated with his class position. Clearly, education trains in skills that are required by the economy. The relation between the economy growth and education can be an exact one. For instance, the number and productive capacity of engineering firms are limited by the numbers of engineers produced by education. In planned economy, normally it is planned years in advance to produce a definite number of doctors, engineers, teachers, technicians, scientist, etc. to meet the social and economic needs of the society. Education also fosters participants’ democracy. Participant’s democracy in any large and complex society depends on literacy. Hence, education helps in the training of the knowledge, mind, skill and character of an individual. Literacy allows full participation of the people in democratic processes and effecting voting. Literacy is a product of education. Educational system has this economic as well as political significance.
Creating standard based schools that are accountable for helping all students reach higher level of achievements and the attainment of educational growth and objectives as stipulated in the national policy on education (2004) requires schools and relevant education districts to adequately provide and controls educational resources. In essence, educational resources are materials both (human and capital) which are utilize in other to achieve the goals objectives of education – especially conducive teaching/learning environment, instructional materials readily available to enhance teaching/learning. Adequate textbooks to teach core subjects. Competent staffs to carry out the instructional activities in the classroom and among many others. With the creation of Lagos state in 1967, the ministry of education and community development was set up as one of the ministries created at the time. It immediately took over the gigantic task of administering the inherited educational system using professional and administrative staff transferred to the new state from the federal and western region ministries of education. The ministry at that time was patterned after the system of the old western region which had an inspectorate (now quality assurance) division as its professional arm of the ministry. Education service in Lagos state is delivered through agencies, boards and districts. Education districts in Lagos state supports schools in becoming increasingly better in other to achieve the stated goals and objectives of schools under its jurisdiction, they also identify the needs of the school. Worldwide, a number of schools have recognizes the allocation of resources to make dramatic improvements in students’ achievement. These high performing schools organizes teaching staffs and students to allow for small group sizes and more personal attention. These schools put more resources in prevention than remediation. All educators and other adults in the school have an explicit role in supporting students learning and new staff members fit the needs and culture of the school. The school provides significant time and funds for professional development. Technology is integrated into the curriculum, all schools programs and funds support the overall school improvement design. If schools have enough educational resources allocated to it and adequately controlled by relevant authorities, instruction becomes easy and product of such school will be of high quality. Availability and control of educational resources are ingredients that are vital for the provision of social needs in students. Students effective domain will be impaired if they do not have good social interaction with these identified elements of schooling. Learning however can be seen as modification of behavior which takes place through simulating contacts with environment in or outside the school. Therefore, provision and control of adequate educational resources such as quality staffs, time, money, teaching and learning aids, instructional materials and among many others are very essential.
With these facts been acknowledged schools in Lagos state education district II which is the focus of this research work lack access to adequate provision and control of educational resources. In the case it is provided, it is usually in low supply and is not well managed and controlled. A particular reference to the mission statements of the Lagos state ministry of education is “to provide high quality education, accessible to all learners through effective and efficient management of resources for the attainment of self-reliance and socio-economic development. Hence, the above vis-à-vis, the reality on ground with cognizance to the Lagos state education district II which is the focus herein tells that there is a problem that requires dramatic measures as matter of urgency. Thus, when we examined the afore-explained provision and control of educational needs which are important to have a qualitative education in relation to what we have on ground in the district in focus, we will discover a huge discrepancy which needs to be looked into, one which renders the mission statements of the ministry of education fallacious.
1.2Statement of the Problem
Flowing from the background to the study, and having explained in the above what education is as well as the need for adequate provisions and control of educational resources, it is important to note herein that schools under the administration of Lagos state education district II do not have access to certain provision of educational resources and in the case it is provided, it is not properly managed and controlled. However, the space to learn is one of the basic elements necessary to ensure access to education; in our society today, most of our school facilities are deteriorating and are not conducive for learning: Olaniyonu (2006). For instance, in a survey carried out by the European investment Bank 2010, it was reported that the nature of education offered by any school can be ascribed to the availability of adequate educational resource, in essence students’ academic and social performance are affected by adequate provision and control of educational resources. One of the essential aspects of universal basic education (U.B.E) implementation strategies is to forestall the deteriorating state of school infrastructure and improve access to education. To what extent is the government responding to this problem? However, the concern of this researcher is to assess the provision and control of educational resources in Lagos state education district II.
1.3 purpose of the study
The general purpose of the study is to investigate and assess the provision and control of educational resources and its effect on students academic performance in Lagos state education district II.
Specifically, the purpose of the study includes:
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Significance of the study
It is anticipated the study will provides useful information to policy makers in Lagos state, especially in education district II, not only on how to make provision for high standard of educational resources but on how to cultivate maintenance culture. It will also motivate the state government to see the need to make yearly inventory of available infrastructure in relation to admission into secondary schools in education district II since such inventory will aid the provision of enough accommodation for student’s educational programs. This study will intimate people’s knowledge of how to appreciate values and sensitize them on how to equate high standard with effective instructions. This study promotes awareness on the process of planning public facilities; it intends to bring about improvements in the culture of school planning and management. It will assist government and educational planners to realize the extent to which constant provision and adequate control of educational resources would enhances instructions.
1.7Scope and delimitation of the study
This study is an evaluation study on the available resources in junior secondary schools in Lagos state education district II and how they comply with the expected mission statement of the Lagos state Ministry of Education. The study includes both public and private junior secondary schools in education district II. The study also focus on both human and material resources such as physical facilities, fiscal facilities, instructional and school environment in Lagos state education district II only.
1.8 Research Design
This study will adopt the descriptive survey research design. Descriptive survey was considered suitable for this study because it looks with intense accuracy at the phenomenon in question and describes exactly what the researcher sees on ground, in terms of educational resources.
1.9 Population of the study
The population of the study will consist of all selected public secondary schools in Lagos education district II. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted to select twenty-five (25) respondents (principals and teachers) from each school, making a total of One Hundred and fifty (150) respondents for the study.
1.10Sample and Sampling technique
The simple random sampling method was used to select the schools under each local government in the district. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select twenty-five from each school.
1.11 Research Instrument
The instrument will be designed by the researcher to assess the level of adequacy of educational resources available in selected schools. Educational resource provision and control questionnaire (ERPCQ) will be used.
1.12 Data Analysis
The researcher will observe all educational resources available in selected schools. Data will be displayed in a tabular form and analyzed in chapter four of this study.
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