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TRAINING AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AS CORRELATES OF TEACHERS’ PRODUCTIVITY IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The researcher carried out a study on Training and Manpower Development as Correlates of Teachers’ Productivity in Selected Secondary Schools in Aguda Local Government Area of Lagos State. Survey research design was used for this study. The population of the study constitutes all the teachers in the selected secondary schools in Aguda Local Government Area of Lagos State. The sample size used for this study comprise 160 respondents, made up of 100 female teachers and 60 male teachers 16 teachers from each of the 10 selected secondary schools. A simple random sampling technique was used for the sample selection. The instrument for data collection was a self-made questionnaire designed on a four-point Likert Attitude scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A) Disagree (D) Strongly Disagree (SD). The questionnaire comprised of sections A and B, section A comprise the bio-data of the respondents while, the section B comprise the question items. The researcher visited, the various schools sampled with questionnaire to meet with the school authority and the respondent inorder to administer the instruments to the respondents for data collection. The purpose of the study was explained to them by the researcher before the administration of the questionnaire and this took the period of five working days. The researcher collected back the questionnaire after the completion by the respondents without any of them missing. The data collected was analyzed using the simple percentages for the research questions while the research hypotheses were tested using the pearson product moment correlation co-efficient at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis shows that training and development has a significant impact on teachers’ productivity there is a significant relationship between years of experience and teachers’ productivity, there is no signification relationship between qualification and teachers’ productivity and that there is a high significant relationship between motivation and teachers’ productivity. It was recommended among others that for organizations to succeed there is need for continuous training and development of the human resources therefore teachers require workshops seminars and other forms of in services training which will facilitate their job performance.
1.1Background to the Study
It is literally impossible for any individual to learn a job or enter a profession and remain in it for long with his her skills basically unchanged. This is more changing organization like a school that must adapt to changing societal demands and instructional methodology. Thus, no matter how excellent the pre-service preparation and how well qualified school personnel are at the time of employment, efforts should be made to develop them personally and professionally on a regular and continuous basis (Alabi 2009).
Building human capital has been recognized in recent times as crucial to the overall development of any nation. The best thing Nigeria can give to its citizens is quality education, which opens the doors to development and progress. The importance of developing human capital cannot be over-emphasized as it acts as a catalyst for change for a better future, for individuals to realize their full potentials in the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
It is apparent that the world democracies that are doing well are those
whose education systems are producing well-educated citizens, who can understand what is involved in life and are not ethnic biased (Anya, 1999).
The schools need well qualified staff to provide quality learning experience for students in line with the saying “no school can be greater than its job requirement within the school system demands that personnel must be well developed. It is important to develop the teachers that directly impart knowledge to students, resulting ultimately in successful achievement of the goal of education (Nwagbara, 1999).
Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very
essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the
development of personnel in any organization.
Therefore, training can be put in a context relevant to school
administrators. However, knowledge IS the ability, the skills, the
understanding, the information, which every individual requires in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently (Garuba, 2006).
According to. Olaniyan and Lucas (2008) human resources are the most valuable assets of any organization, with the machines, materials and even the money, nothing gets done without manpower. Abiodun (1999).
Submitted that training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employee to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on-the-job or off-the-job; in the organization. Martins (2004) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that for the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contribution to the success of the organizational goals, they need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge in appreciation of this fact, organizations like educational institutions, conduct final training and development programmes for the different levels of their manpower.
According to Oyekan (2001) training is the improvement of the knowledge and skill of employees in terms of behaviour, attitudes, skills, knowledge, perception and in the performance of their duties. Nwosu (2008) see training as the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a particular purpose while development is broader in scope than training and is considered to be formal education in schools, colleges and universities while training is seen as a vocation and takes place in workshop and organizations. Development is concerned with knowledge and understanding while training is the acquisition of mechanical skills. According to Shittu (2003)training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviours. It has to do with job related activities capable of being broken and analyzed to determine the best way to perform certain tasks. Staff development helps educators keep abreast of expanding knowledge based on education, so they can continuality refine their conceptual and craft skills. According to Lawal (2003).
It is important to develop the teachers that directly impart knowledge to students; the school heads that supervise, guide and support the
teachers, and other support staff that make the work of the teachers and the school heads easier. It is only then that appropriate and adequate knowledge can be imparted to the students, resulting in successful achievement of the goals of education (Nwosu, 2008).
In-service education could be formal or informal. The formal type is
obtained through attendance at institutions of higher learning and
knowledge is acquired through formal teaching and learning for the
award of certificates, diplomas, or degrees. The successful completion of the programme attract higher income and a higher status in the society.
Above all it opens up new avenue for further education of the serving teacher. Reiterating, Alozie (2006) activities of the formal type of in-service education include conferences, consultations services, correspondence courses, demonstration teaching, exchange teaching, extension courses, summer study, faculty meetings, workshops, orientation prgorammes and others.
The informal type of in-service education is the most common type
among Lagos State Teachers. These include: participation in professional books, journals, newspapers, listening and watching the electronic media. Chris (2006) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organizational growth. Also Egbe (2002) postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one.
The need to perform one’s job efficiently and the need to know how to
lead others are sufficient reasons for training and development and the desire to meet organization’s objectives of higher productivity, makes it absolutely compulsory.
It is against this background training human resource development
correlates of teacher’s productivity in selected secondary schools, in
Aguda Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Trained manpower and productive labour force are two major aims of
education. Education generates skilled labour force that is capable
moving economic growth and national development forward. Nowadays the labour force in the country shows negative symbols depicting that is not well with education.
This is why Ogunsola (2007) quoting senator Olabiyi Durojaiyue
commented saying “the stark reality on ground is that the standard
education in Nigeria has fallen lamentably and abysmally over the year. There is a general outcry about poor performance of secondary school students in internal and external examinations.
Akubuiro and Joshua (2009) observed that in recent times there ha
been complaints that the standard of education is fallen. Research
reports and general observations make it obvious that the quality
teachers is low, since they are not given opportunity for training and
All these and more, necessitate the study of training and human
resource development as correlates of teachers’ productivity in selected secondary schools in Aguda Local Government Area, Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to:
v Examine the impact of training/ development on teachers’ productivity
v Determine the relationship between years of experience and
teachers’ productivity .
v Assess the relationship between qualification and teacher’s
v Examine the relationship between motivation and teacher’s productivity .
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are to be answered in this study:
Ø What is the impact of training/ development on teachers’ productivity?
Ø Is ·there any significant relationship between years of experience
and teachers’ productivity?
Ø Is there any significant relationship between motivation and teachers’ productivity?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in the study:
1.6 Significance of the Study
The following stakeholders in education will benefit from this study:
Teachers will benefit from this research work because they will be
sensitized on the need to acquire more and relevant knowledge and skill which will in turn, enhance their instructional methods and boost the quality of teaching and learning.
Students will benefit hence they will be tutored by well groomed teachers who are acquainted with new trends and innovations in the art of teaching and this will culminate in great improvement on students’ academic achievement, in secondary schools.
The society on the other hand, will profit, because the products of our educational system will be of a higher quality and this will enhance the nation’s economic and technological development.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation
This study will cover 10 secondary schools in Aguda Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
Ø Training: This describes the process of learning to perform certain tasks. It is also defined as a systematic development of skills, knowledge and attitude required to perform certain tasks.
Ø Manpower: This could be defined as human resources in an organization. It can also be referred to as the labour force in an organization. Development:It is the gradual changes in attitude, knowledge and skill acquired by an individual or group of people.
Ø Correlates: These entail things or factors involved in a process things that set the pace for a phenomenon to occur.
Ø Teachers: Are those who are trained in the knowledge and skill I imparting knowledge to the learners.
Ø Productivity: This is defined as the result of a task performed for instance, in a school setting, productivity is measured in line will the performance of students in the three domains of learning
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