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ANALYSING THE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FIVE PHARMACEUTICAL EFFLUENTS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
The concentrations of some heavy metals in the effluents of five pharmaceutical companies operating in Ogun State of Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The heavy metals analyzed in this study included Cobalt, Nickel, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, and Copper. Eighty (80) % of the samples were found to contain the metals in varying concentrations. The results indicate the order of abundance of these heavy metals in the effluent samples as follows: Nickel > Copper > Chromium > Cobalt > Cadmium > Lead. Largely, the concentrations were above the WHO maximum acceptable concentration for each metal. Nickel which has the highest concentration, has a value of 0.935 mg/L. Highest concentrations for other heavy metals were found to be 0.028mg/L for Lead, 0.083mg/L for chromium, 0.021 mg/L for Cadmium, 0.043 mg/L for Cobalt and 0.227 mg/L for copper. This research reveals the need to implement measures that will allow treatment of industrial effluents before their final discharge to surface water to reduce their potential negative effects on the ecosystem.
Key words: Heavy metals, Pharmaceutical effluents, Ecotoxicity, Surface water.