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AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FPR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Background to the problem
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Importance of instructional materials
Agricultural science laboratory
Research design and procedure
Table one (effect of instructional materials on students generally)
Table two (effect of instructional materials on female students)
Suggestion for further studies
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Teachers of yester-year in secondary school in discipline of agricultural science relied on few or no instructional materials at all in their teaching. They believe they can force knowledge no matter how unpleasant into the empty brain of the children or pupils. This made learning of agricultural science for most pupils become unpleasant superficial learning or no learning at all time.
Agricultural science is a source of constant fear for many students in agricultural science have fail to recognized the fact that learning should consist of pleasurable activities for the same time, the teachers need to appeal to all their senses (seeing learning smelling and touching). Furthermore, the teachers should also note that ineffective use of instructional materials (like concrete objects hairs textbooks, chalkboard and picture) for teaching agricultural science in secondary school has discouraged many students from learning agricultural science.
It is important to emphasize once again that agricultural science is a “tool” it is real and should be treated as such. The difficulty posed by the agricultural science has generated a lot of discussions.
Many people including our educators do not realized that one of the reason why many students perform very poor and below expectation in agricultural science is that the schools lack of relevant instructional materials.
Therefore for effective understanding of the subject matter in agricultural science and for students to perform better in agricultural science in Nigeria school examination, there is the need to examine the impact or effect of instructional materials on students performance in agricultural science with the aim of stimulating the interest of the students in the subject it is well known among educators that the education experience involving the learners activity participating in concrete examples can retain longer than abstract experience. The instructional materials add element of reality by proving such concrete examples. The teaching of agricultural science course has always been based on a limited knowledge based, and as a result the utilization of instructional materials among teachers often rely on traditional isolation of the classroom setting provide access to expensive resources and improve overall productivity.
Saye (2006) to achieve the desire outcome with the utilization of technology, the teaching of agricultural science must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such technology but at the same time promote strategies that enable the integrated of technology. Bolick et al (2008) pointed to a precarious relationship between the teaching of agricultural science and utilization of instructional materials. They argued that while some educators have been fascinated by the potential media to enhance teaching and learning many schools have lagged behind in assimilating instructional materials into instruction. Others express doubt that instructional materials will ever in like instructional reform in agricultural science. They stated that this conflict has led some researchers to conclude that agricultural science has not applicably changed as a result of instructional materials.
The technology in secondary schools instruction has been widely researched but many questions still remain unanswered.
Research in various relevant areas is still needed. Educators are asking if the use of instructional materials will make a difference in the performance of students. At the same time, teachers are asking if there exist the best tool to assist in the course of delivery. The learning environment of a classroom assisted by instructional technology is different from one without technology and the question remains regarding the benefit of technology in the classroom. Do that means that students are actively engage in learning? Would the thinking skills among students and facilitate the preferred inquiry based learning: the teaching and strategies and the curriculum are all affected by the inclusion of instructional materials and research would continue to add new information and shape to the evolution of instructional technology in the classroom. Active learning in agricultural science involves providing the opportunities for students for participate meaningfully by talking and listening, writing, reading and reflecting on the content, unfortunately many classrooms continue to be dominated by a single medium and this is usually the printed textbooks. This dominance prevents teachers from reaching all students, instead if forced them to cater for those who find the texts accessible and this creates barriers for those who do not. There are further consequences. Even though students are able to access. The are missing, there are media readily available that are more suitable for communicating, student’s preferences and proclivities for certain media and tools can plan an important role in depending their engagement and enhancing their learning experiences.
Collecting and maintaining a sufficiently varied assortment of traditional media that would allow us to create an optimal instruction environment for every student in unit of curriculum would be incredibly costly insurmountable logistic problem. More instructional materials is not a reasonable alternative. Teachers do not necessarily need more media but what they need while worth and Benson (2003) indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of instruction media in agricultural science classroom that would enhance agricultural science education.
The effective usage of instructional; media has dramatically increased in the last two decades. According to Abu Jabber (2004) the importance of instructional materials for both teachers and students cannot be over emphasized. In agricultural science the use of instruction media is essential to support learning because agricultural science are concerned about little calculation which cannot be easily empresses without the support of video and picture etc. Corsor point out the use of instructional materials in agricultural science, classroom widens the channel of communication between teachers and their students the instructional materials allow the growth of specific learning abilities and motor skills. The use of charts and model enable the teachers to present and illustrate many physical phenomenal and issue easily and at some time, allows them to focus attention on the characteristics of objects. In computer based instructional the use of such media agricultural science lesson are imperative as it makes a valuable contribution to the quality of students learning such media can be used in several ways in agricultural science lesson. Power point for instance can used to present agricultural science issues (diagram) Recece and Walker (2001) also pointed out that similarly effective learning to the professional use of visual aids
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
(a) Are there any significant difference in performance of students taught with the use of instructional materials and these taught without instructional materials
(b) Does the availability of instructional materials contribute anything to students academic achievement in agricultural science
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
In this study attempt would be made to solve some question generated to guide in the analysis of the data foe study. These include.
(a) Can all forms of instructional materials be used by the students
(b) What form of instructional materials can be used by the students
(c) What is the attitude of the teachers and students towards the use of instructional materials for the students
(d) How accessible is the instructional materials to the teacher
(e) What is the effect of the use of instructional materials on the performance of the agricultural science students
The hypothesis generated is:
(1) will there be any significant different in the achievement or perfor4mance of students taught with the aid of instructional materials and that of students taught without instructional materials
(2) Will there be any significant difference in the achievement or performance of female students taught with aid of instructional materials and female students taught without the use of instructional materials.
1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
(1) To compare, the performance or achievement of the students taught using without the use of instructional materials
(2) To see, if instructional materials contribute anything positive to students academic achievement or performance in agricultural science
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Owning to the effective roles which agricultural science plays in the technological advancement of nation, a study that seeks to make the learning of agricultural science easier is a world-wide effort. This study is a paramount importance in the teaching and learning of agricultural science, because it attempts to clarify of the use of instructional materials and effectiveness of those materials in teaching of agricultural science. The study is also important of instruction media are really needed for the teaching of agricultural science valuable suggestion would be made to the government, parent, teachers and students alike in the use of instructional materials in our schools. Those suggestions will form part of the recommendation from the study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers the agricultural science students in Nigeria using Irele Local Government in Ondo State as a case study. These schools are selected because it has agricultural science students Ito Junior Secondary School. The purpose sampling will be used to select all the teachers both male and female this makes a total of about 40 teachers.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Instructional materials: These are media or material use for teaching such as textbook, real objects charts, model, photograph, audio records, and tapes microfilms video tapes, blackboard etc.
Teaching Objectives: The goals which the teacher wants to achieve while teaching
Examination: A test of knowledge or ability to verify what s person is capable of doing offer a teaching process. Have taken place.
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