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DISCUSSES MANPOWER TRAINING AS AN AID TO MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS ENTERPRENEUSHIP (A CASE STUDY OF NIGER OPTICAL SERVIC LTD, ENUGU)

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DISCUSSES MANPOWER TRAINING AS AN AID TO MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS ENTERPRENEUSHIP (A CASE STUDY OF NIGER OPTICAL SERVIC LTD, ENUGU)

 

 

ABSTRACT

Training  is a necessary factor in the attainment of enterpreneurial objectives of any enterpreneur. In every enterpreneur there exists some form of Training  programme undergone..

In Nigeria with the attainment of independence in 1960, the indigenization Decree and the current economic crises resulting mainly from over-dependence on oil revenue, the manpower has to be trained and developed in terms of quality and quantity so that they can effectively and efficiently control the commanding height of our economy and steer the economy of its present crises and backwardness to prosperity.

The federal government of Nigeria has risen to this, by providing the National Council for management education and training and the centre for management development training schemes. This is important because it directs Training  towards national need and aspiration.

In Niger Optical Service Ltd there is already a formalized system of Training  in the enterpreneur to help it attain its objectives. This project paper is set for highlight the Training  in the company and also to offer solutions to these problems.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1   Statement of problem

1.2   Objective of the study

1.3   Research question

1.4   Significance of the study

1.5   Scope of the study

Hypothesis

1.6   Limitation of the study

1.7   Definition of the study

  • Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Review of related literature

2.1   Meaning of Training

2.2   Objective of Training

2.3   Reason for Training  in an enterpreneur

2.4   Determination of training needs

2.5   Allocation of Resources for Training  purpose

2.6   Training principles and techniques

2.7   Operational training method

2.8   Problems of Training  programmes.

  • Ways of improving the problems

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology

3.1   Source of Data

3.2   Area of study

3.3   Population of the study

3.4   Sample size determination

3.5   Instrument for data collection

3.6   Validation of the instrument

  • Instrument reliability

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and Analysis of data

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of findings

5.1   Conclusion

5.2   Recommendation

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria has been faced with the challenges of providing adequate effective manpower needs, development and management of the economic resources right from when she gained independence from Britain on October 1st, 1960.

The inability of the country to make provision for the required manpower has resulted in the inefficient and under utilization of her abundant economic resources.

Haines speaking on the general poor development of Nigeria workers said that he is under used, under employed, frustrated and prevented from bringing his talents to bear on the well being of his employer, and the nation at large. The principal culprit is not the worker but the leaders (Nigeria).

The above analysis, shows that the country is blessed with abundant human resources with which it can develop, but they lack effective utilization of these potentials for the transformation of their economic resources, essentially because of the inadequate planning and development of human resources. Training  of manpower  gives face lift towards venture.

Training  is an important aspect in an enterpreneur from which both the employer and employee stand to gain a lot. As soon as employees are recruited and inducted, they must be trained and develop to fit perfectly into their jobs for which they have been employed and this can best be through the introduction of Training  programmes, the areas to direct our minds to when establishing such programmes are how can Training  programmes be directed to meet the challenging needs of the Nigeria economy and how can it increase productivity and the rate of industrialization of our environment. Entrepreneur is one who builds a single product organism. (Schumpeter, 2010)The necessity of entrepreneurship for productivity was formally recognized   by Alfred Marshall in 1990. In his famous practice principle of economics, Marshall ascertains that there are four factors of production; Land, Labour Capital and enterpreneur. These factors are properly utilized by an entrepreneur. Thus entrepreneur creates new commodities or improves the plan of producing an old commodity. (Marshall1994).Hence early entrepreneurs were characterized with production and manufacturing. In this case, the producers most often started with small capital. Early entrepreneurship started with trade by barter even before the advent of money. However, modern entrepreneurship in Nigeria started with the coming of the colonial masters, who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their Middlemen. In these way modern entrepreneurs was conceived. Most of the modern entrepreneurs were engaged in retail trade or sole proprietorship. After about a decade and a half of adopting an enterpreneurship strategy based on large scale enterprises, mostly of the assembly type, Nigeria has achieved only a fragile industrial development through enterpreneurship.  A little after independence, some small-scale industrial could not really continue to exist let alone flowish due to the fact that they were either swallowed up by the larger ones or by foreign firms.  The large scale enterprises which were set up tended to be capital intensive and inappropriate, given the country’s resource endowment. Their capital equipment and technical manpower have continued to be largely imported.  As a result, the triple objective of setting up the plants, achievement of high level, local level, value added foreign exchange, saving and acquisition materialized.  For instance, the assembly plants have not achieved up to 20 percent in local raw material sourcing, instead they are more or less systematic foreign exchange guzzlers with neither the will no the capacity to transfer any meaningful technology beyond the punitive type.

According to(Schumpeter, 2010) short after that the French economist J. B. added to the Castilian definition by including the idea that entrepreneurs has to be leaders. That an entrepreneur is one who builds a single product organism. (Schumpeter, 2010)The necessity of entrepreneurship for productivity was formally recognized   by Alfred Marshall in 1990. In his famous practice principle of economics, Marshall ascertains that there are four factors of production; Land, Labour Capital and enterpreneur. These factors are properly utilized by an entrepreneur. Thus entrepreneur creates new commodities or improves the plan of producing an old commodity. (Marshall1994).Hence early entrepreneurs were characterized with production and manufacturing. In this case, the producers most often started with small capital. Early entrepreneurship started with trade by barter even before the advent of money. However, modern entrepreneurship in Nigeria started with the coming of the colonial masters, who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their Middlemen. In these way modern entrepreneurs was conceived. Most of the modern entrepreneurs were engaged in retail trade or sole proprietorship. The to incorporate in our system the need to be technologically self-reliant cannot be over-emphasized.  The first step is to develop our human and natural resources, thus increasing our per capital income.  In the past even years, or more, especially during the administration of Ibrahim Babangida, Nigeria has constantly pursued an economic policy that is geared towards self-reliance for the individual as show by such programmes as the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) which is a graduate assistance scheme aimed at helping young school leavers to acquire necessary skills and funds that will help them to start their own business, other programmes with such mission include the people bank, Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP) and Nigerian Association of Small-scale Industrialists (NASSI).

The entrepreneur and his activities forms an integral part in the development of our economy.  At this point, it becomes pertinent to define who is an entrepreneur and why we are having an insight into his plight to actualize the aims and objectives of its existence.

Nwana, L.E. (1995:32) defined an entrepreneur as an individual who is willing and able to take business risks for gainful purpose”.

Despite the aspirations of many, only a few people in this country and indeed Enugu our place of concentration has carried out their intention of having business established by them.  Studies have been shown that 90% of these who seriously decided to incorporate a company five or more years ago have not yet done so.  In Enugu state our emphasis will concentrate on the Nigerian Association of Small-Scale Industrialists (NASSI) Enugu State chapter, formed in 1978 owing to the creation of Enugu State in 1991, the Enugu office was established, to represent the organized small-scale industrialists in the state, thus tries to uplift the status of this sector.

The NASSI has its chapter in all the seventeen (17) local government areas of the state aimed at inculcating into our society, the spirit of owing and controlling business at the grass root level, to facilitate the much desired self-reliance on our locally made goods and services, self-reliance on the national economy as show in the policies of banning the importation of certain goods into this country, the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) which among other things aims at sourcing of our own raw materials for the industries locally, though many see it as backward integration the maintenance culture is also part of our attempts so self-reliance.

Based on the indeginisation policy that brought into existence, the Nigerian Enterprise promotion decree of 1972, which aims at encouraging and giving Nigerians the skill and knowledge to own and control their own business.  Although all the aims and objectives of this dream has not come to fruition, since about 75% of Nigerians and indeed in Enugu has not realized their dream of owning and controlling a business of their choice (Igboeli J. 1995). (Schumpeter, 2010) short after that the French economist J. B. added to the Castilian definition by including the idea that entrepreneurs has to be leaders. That an entrepreneur is one who builds a single product organism. (Schumpeter, 2010)The necessity of entrepreneurship for productivity was formally recognized   by Alfred Marshall in 1990. In his famous practice principle of economics, Marshall ascertains that there are four factors of production; Land, Labour Capital and enterpreneur. These factors are properly utilized by an entrepreneur. Thus entrepreneur creates new commodities or improves the plan of producing an old commodity. (Marshall1994).Hence early entrepreneurs were characterized with production and manufacturing. In this case, the producers most often started with small capital. Early entrepreneurship started with trade by barter even before the advent of money. However, modern entrepreneurship in Nigeria started with the coming of the colonial masters, who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their Middlemen. In these way modern entrepreneurs was conceived. Most of the modern entrepreneurs were engaged in retail trade or sole proprietorship. In other words an entrepreneur is a person who starts, organizes, manages and assumes responsibility for a business or other enterprise. If the desire to earn a profit is the driven force in our economy, then the entrepreneur is the spark plug. The entrepreneur takes the lead in combining raw materials, capital, labor and other inputs in the production of goods and services. The entrepreneur is also an innovator and risk taker. Entrepreneurs have no guarantee that their ventures will be profitable. But in organizing a business they risk their time, efforts and money in the hope that they will be able to earn a profit.

The entrepreneur is also defined as either the originator of a new business venture or a manager who tries to improve an enterpreneurial unit by initiative productive changes. (Stoner and Freeman 1992:156). Thus the entrepreneur is an individual or group of individuals, who sees an environmental change as an opportunity and uses the factors of production to produce new goods and services. The entrepreneur perceives opportunities that other business executives do not see or do not care about. Some entrepreneurs use information that is generally available to produce something new like inventing a new product in a new way. Other entrepreneurs see new business opportunities such as adopting companies existing products to create new ones. Basically, the entrepreneurs see a need and then bring together the manpower, materials, land and capital required to meet that need (Backman 1983:3).

 

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

All enterpreneur be it medical, educational or business have pre-determined goals and objectives which they intend to achieve and these are ends towards which enterpreneurial activities are geared enterprise strive to achieve their respective goals and purposes since this is used as a yardstick or standard for assessing their success or failure.

The major determinant of any enterpreneur is the presence of capable men and women with the right skill and knowledge to combine enterpreneurial goals and objectives.

The manager and employee must be well equipped in order to carryout these assignments and skill can only be imported through the Training  of the employees.

In Nigeria, there is shortage of skilled labour and the major challenge of the Nigeria management is to help develop the skills of the nations existing staff and at the same time device ways and means of utilizing the surplus staff.

Both the public and private sectors are besieged with the problem of inefficiency low capacity and other symptoms of poor jobs performance . these problems can be avoided and solved by early identification of adequate trained and development techniques and programmes for different level of managers supervisors and other employees.

The  researcher work is directed towards the problem of Training  programmes of Nigeria company (NOS), with a view of identifying the methods, problem areas and suggestions on ways of achieving a greater success in her Training  efforts.

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Most modern enterpreneurs have some Training  for its employees. Lack of it represents a serious set back in productivity but Training  is not without its own problems so the objectives of this usually is to…

  • Determine the type of training set up in  Niger optical service company ltd.
  • Determine the problems encountered in their training
  • Offer effective and efficient solution to these problems
  • Identify Training needs in Niger optical service ltd .
  • Design Training programmes that will be suitable to the staff needs of the company.
  • Determine cost benefit of the training and development programmes
  • Identify the company’s selection process for training workers.

 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In carrying out this project, the following questions were asked, they include

  • What are types of Training set up in business entrepreneurship organization?
  • What are the problems encountered by Niger optical service ltd when carrying out their training programmes?
  • How does Training needs being identified in Niger optical service ltd ?
  • Is the design of Training programmes suitable to the staff needs of the company?
  • What is the cost benefit of Training programmes?
  • How fair is the company’s selection process for training workers?
  • Has training programmes created some positive changes in ultimate performance and productivity of the trainees?
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: It is impossible to identify the types of Training set up in business entrepreneurship business organizations.

H1: It is possible to identify the types of Training set up in business enterpreneurship business organizations.

 

H0: There are no problems encountered by Niger optical service ltd when carrying out their training  programmes.

H1: There are lot problems encountered by Niger optical service ltd when carrying out their training  programmes.

H0: Design of Training  programmes are not suitable to the staff needs of the company.

H1: Design of Training programmes are suitable to the staff needs of the company.

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study lies on the fact that it will be of immense benefit as a reference tool to the organizers and executors of Training  programmes in Nigeria companies.

It will also be of benefit to the researcher who will be conversant with what Training  entails and the problems involves, thereby prepare him/her for the outside world. It will be of immense benefit to management of enterpreneurs.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This scope is restricted to Niger optical service ltd  Enugu. The study is designed to look into Training  as pre-requisite for High productivity.

 

  • LIMITATION

The limitation of the study include time constraints and inadequate findings:

  • Time: Time has always been a scarce resource for students researchers and of the factors necessary for research is time. The time available for this research was too short. The researcher had not only spent much time in search for a company that will permit him to understudy their establishment.

 

He  was also confronted with other academic obligation like regular class attendance, writing of assignment, quizzes, term paper and preparation for examination.

  • Inadequate funding:  Another limiting factor to this study was finance. This research requires much fund. The researcher had to meet other in evitable financial obligations required to him in course of his academic work inadequate fund therefore affected the scope adeptness and smooth execution of this research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Development:  Development is an enterpreneurship related learning experience preparing the individual for new future jobs and performance base on possible future directions for the enterpreneur.

 

Training: Training is a job related learning experience provided in order to improve performance on the current job.

 

Management: Management is the purpose use of resources of man, minutes, materials, machines, method and money. The key resource is man management thus is the effort of other people.  

  1. Manpower: this refers to the workforce, human resource available to any enterpreneur.
  2. Effectiveness: Achieving the intended result.
  3. Development: This is the systematic growth of an individual intellectually, psychologically, socially and physically.
  4. Personnel Management: This is an aspect of management that is concerned with all aspect of managing the human resources of an enterpreneur.
  5. Civil Service: This refers to the body of men/women employed to ensure that policies and programmes of any government at any particular time are carried out.
  6. Skill: Ability of a worker to do its work expectedly and well.
  7. Training: Is a systematically process by which the individual learns skills ability and knowledge to further enterpreneurial and personal goals.
  8. A worker: A person who work. that is a person who alter his labour.
  9. Career Development: Advancement in ones profession.
  10. Enterpreneur: A collection of group of people geared toward achieving goal.

 

REFERENCE

 

Agbo G.O (2001) The practice of management, Enugu. Iyke Venture production.

 

Nwachukwu, C.C(1991) Theory and practice of management Enugu Africa Fep Pub.

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • This chapter deals with the following headings: Review of related literature

2.1   Meaning of Training

2.2   Objective of Training

2.3   Reason for Training  in an enterpreneur

2.4   Determination of training needs

2.5   Allocation of Resources for Training  purpose

2.6   Training principles and techniques

2.7   Operational training method

2.8   Problems of Training  programmes.

2.9   Ways of improving the problems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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