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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF LITTLE EGBE DAM RESERVOIR ON RURAL LIVELIHOOD IN GBOYIN LOCAL GOVERNMENR AREA OF EKITI STATE

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF LITTLE EGBE DAM RESERVOIR ON RURAL LIVELIHOOD IN GBOYIN LOCAL GOVERNMENR AREA OF EKITI STATE

 

 

ABSTRACT

This work discusses environmental impact of little egbe dam reservoir on rural livelihood in gboyin local governmenr area of ekiti state

.A hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed among students and teachers from selected secondary schools in gboyin local governmenr area of ekiti state. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data will be used in the analysis. Tables and percentages will also be used as the instrument of analysis

 

It will be observed therefore that little egbe dam reservoir have a strong and significant impact on rural livelihood

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Research questions

1.5 Research hypothesis

 

CHAPTER TWO

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Methodology and procedure

3.2   The empirical investigation

3.3   Reliability of data collected

3.4 RESEARCH DESIGN

3.5 Population of the study

3.6 Instrument for data collection

3.7 Validation of the instrument

3.8 Reliability of the instrument

3.9 Methods of data collection

CHAPTER FOUR

Analysis and discussion of results

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary and conclusion

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background of the study

Rivers have played a major role in shaping the earth’s physical and ecological landscapes through their unique hydrologic characteristics, as well as shaping cultural landscapes by provid- ing food, water, and other ecosystem services. With the rise of ancient civilizations came a rise in building dams and diversions for water storage, irrigation, transportation, and flood control. As early as 6500 BC, the Sumerians constructed dams across the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to provide flood control and irrigation for crops (McCully 2001). By the first millennium BC, stone and earthen dams were erected on nearly every continent, enabling the acquisition of water and food to sustain population growth. Dam technology advanced slowly until the Industrial Revolution when larger dams were built in less time and from man-made materials (DiFrancesco and Woodruff 2007). Today, more than

 

45,000 large dams (greater than 15 m in height) exist worldwide (DiFrancesco and Woodruff 2007), that provide water supply, flood control, waterpower for mills, hydroelectric power, improved navigation, recreation, and waste disposal (Graf 2002).

The rapid increase in dam projects during the early and middle twentieth century was driven by socio-economic and political pressure to increase the quality and quantity of water for pro- duction while simultaneously minimizing its destructive poten- tial (i.e. water security). Advances in structural engineering, such as the use of pre-stressed concrete (Arthur 1977), also con- tributed to the proliferation of dams. Recently, dam construction in developed countries has decreased as a majority of economi- cally viable projects have already been pursued. Moreover, changes in ideology and a growing awareness of the environ- mental and social impacts of dams have become important factors that influence valuations of dam projects in developed countries (Born et al. 1998, Johnson and Graber 2002). Dams that no longer function for their intended purposes or that pose safety hazards have been decommissioned and removed (Kato- podis and Aadland 2006). However, the political-ecology dimen- sion of developing countries and the multiple utilitarian benefits provided by dams continue to favour the proliferation of these structures in regions where the resources offered by free- flowing rivers provide incentive for industrial and infrastructure development (Goodland 1997). The potential negative impacts of dams on the environment and natural resource-based liveli- hoods of local peoples are often considered by decision- makers to be acceptable costs relative to the economic benefits these structures can provide.

The impacts of dams on the biological, geophysical, and chemi- cal processes of rivers have been extensively documented (Gold- smith and Hildyard 1984, Petts 1984, Graf 1999, WCD 2000). Although specific environmental impacts of dams are influenced by local conditions, as well as the size and type of dam con- structed, similar environmental impacts of dams have been docu- mented in various regions of the world, and are generally not unique to a specific location or ecosystem.

Negative environmental impacts of dams can occur upstream, downstream, and in reservoirs. In addition to habitat degradation or destruction, dams induce significant barrier effects by block- ing the downstream flow of sediment and nutrients and prevent- ing the migration of fish and other aquatic organisms (Lessard and Hayes 2003, Meixler et al. 2009). Additionally, altered flow rates may negatively impact aquatic organisms that depend on critical thresholds of water level, velocity, or timing for life history stages (Bunn and Arthington 2002, Dugan et al. 2010).

 

1.2 Statement of the problem

Dams may have negatively impact aquatic organisms by altering water temperature and dissolved oxygen both within reservoirs and outflows (Lessard and Hayes 2003). Reservoirs may also contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide and methane) through the decomposition of flooded biomass and soils (St. Louis et al. 2000, Ma¨kinen and Khan 2010).

 

1.3 Objectives of the study

  1. To understand the environmental impact of dam reservoirs on rural livelihood
  2. To understand the relationship between dam reservoirs and rural livelihood

 

1.4 Research questions

  1. What is the environmental impact of dam reservoirs on rural livelihood
  2. Is there a relationship between dam reservoirs and rural livelihood

 

1.5 Research hypothesis

H0: There is no relationship between dam reservoirs and rural livelihood

H1: There is a relationship between dam reservoirs and rural livelihood

 

 

 

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