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MODELING EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY: APPLICATION OF THE GARCH AND EGARCH MODELS
Policy makers need accurate forecasts about future values of exchange rates. This is due to the fact that exchange rate volatility is a useful measure of uncertainty about the economic environment of a country. This paper applies univariate nonlinear time series analysis to the daily (TZS/USD) exchange rate data spanning from January 4, 2009 to July 27, 2015 to examine the behavior of exchange rate in Tanzania. To capture the symmetry effect in exchange rate data, the paper applies both ARCH and GARCH models. Also, the paper employs exponential GARCH (EGARCH) model to capture the asymmetry in volatility clustering and the leverage effect in exchange rate. The paper reveals that exchange rate series exhibits the empirical regularities such as clustering volatility, nonstationarity, non-normality and serial correlation that justify the application of the ARCH methodology. The results also suggest that exchange rate behavior is generally influenced by previous information about exchange rate. This also implies that previous day’s volatility in exchange rate can affect current volatility of exchange rate. In addition, the estimate for asymmetric volatility suggests that positive shocks imply a higher next period conditional variance than negative shocks of the same sign. The main policy implication of these results is that since exchange rate volatility (exchange-rate risk) may increase transaction costs and reduce the gains to international trade, knowledge ofn exchange rate volatility estimation and forecasting is important for asset pricing and risk management.
Exchange Rate Volatility, Heteroscedasticity, Leverage Effect, GARCH Models