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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MORINGA PEREGRINA SEED AND ITS OIL
Physico-chemical properties of Iranian Moringa peregrina seeds were studied at moisture content of 4.40% wet basis. Some oil quality properties of the seeds were also examined. Physical properties of the seeds and kernels in terms of linear dimensions, mass, volume, sphericity, surface area, true and bulk densities, porosity, repose angle, shell ratio, terminal velocity and static coefficient of friction on various surfaces were determined. The proximate analysis of seeds showed the following composition: 4.4% moisture, 2.7% ash, 55.7% fat, 23.4% protein and 14.8% carbohydrate. The results of mineral analysis demonstrated that M. peregrina seeds contained considerable amounts of macro and micro elements. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that oleic acid (77.9%) is the dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by palmitic acid (9.3%), stearic acid (3.5%) and behenic acid (2.6%). Also, the seed oil had low levels of acids (0.06%), iodine (91.70 mg/g), peroxide (0.66 meq O2/kg), conjugated dienes (K232=1.77) and conjugated trienes (K270=0.72). The stability, unsaponifiable matter and saponification value of oil were 10.1 h at 120 °C, 0.32 g/kg oil and 179.3 mg KOH/g, respectively. Moreover, the oil refractive index, viscosity and density were 1.4621, 52.05 mPa∙s and 0.9092 g/cm3, respectively.
Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acids, Moringa peregrina, physical properties