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THE CONTRIBUTION OF URBANIZATION TO SLUM DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF URBANIZATION TO SLUM DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background of the study

Accordingly, the major questions which this project seeks to answer are: How has urbanization encouraged and accelerated the tempo of slum formation? Is slum formation a determinant of insecurity of land tenure? How has slum development deepened the incidence of poverty and enhanced insecurity of land tenure in the selected areas?

 

This project is based on the concept of political ecology. According to Bryant and Bailey (1997), political ecology is the study of the “politi- cised environment”. It is a multi-disciplinary investigation that uses the methods of the social sciences to understand the human processes that result in the initial destruction and re-creation of material environ- ments. Bryant and Wilson (1998) therefore define political ecology as “the political economy of human-environment interactions”.

As a conceptual framework, political ecology argues that the out- come in environmental change is determined by the relative power of agents with conflicting agendas. The agents reflect the scale of analysis. Dietz (1999) identifies two main modes in Third World political ecol- ogy. First, in the eco-imperialist mode, the interests of the first world result in the creation of environmental regimes, under the framework of ecological modernization and often under the label of sustainable development. He identifies eco-populism as the second major mode of thought and action. All of these have effects on the way in which the environment is used, who uses it, when and with what effects. These

 

 

 

necessarily entail analyses concerning those situated on the margins of society and the environment and how to ensure environmental sustain- ability.

For example, Jusilla et al. (1999) found that while the process of marginalization has been an object of inquiry in the last 25 years, there is as yet no operational definition of the term. The concept of margin- ality, which can be applied to people and environments, illuminates restrictions in the options available to marginal people in terms of the management of sensitive environments (Blaikie, 1985). The fact that marginal people are condemned to earn a living in marginal environ- ments, whether rural or urban, is perhaps the essential truth of political ecology. With the exception of those who deliberately marginalize themselves through criminality, marginal people are unlikely to have access to the resources that are required to overcome the restrictions imposed by marginal environments and thus enable them to live be- yond the limits of subsistence. Marginality is thus reinforced and re- produced and environmental sustainability becomes still be more difficult to achieve.

The goal of environmental sustainability is to minimize environ- mental degradation, i.e. the damage to the biosphere as a whole that results from human activity. Environmental degradation occurs when: natural resources (such as trees, habitat, earth, water and air) are con- sumed faster than nature can replenish them, when pollution results in irreparable damage to the environment, or when human beings destroy or damage ecosystems in the process of development. An unsustain- able situation occurs when the natural capital (the sum total of nature’s resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished. Sustainability requires that human activity, at a minimum, only uses nature’s re- sources at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally.

 

  • Statement of the problem

There may have been previous researches in this subject. This work gives further explanations and analysis in the contribution of urbanization to slum development in Nigeria

 

  • Objectives of the study
  1. To understand the contribution of urbanization to slum development in Nigeria
  2. To understand the relationship between the contribution of urbanization and slum development in Nigeria

 

  • Research questions
  1. What is the the contribution of urbanization to slum development in Nigeria
  • What is the relationship between relationship between the contribution of urbanization and slum development in Nigeria

 

  • Research hypothesis

H0: There is no relationship between the contribution of urbanization and slum development in Nigeria

H1: There is a relationship between the contribution of urbanization and slum development in Nigeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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