Show all

THE EFFECTS OF PICTURES ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN PROSE IN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

ATTENTION

 

BEFORE YOU READ THE ABSTRACT OR CHAPTER ONE OF THE PROJECT TOPIC BELOW, PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION BELOW.THANK YOU!

 

INFORMATION:

YOU CAN GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT OF THE TOPIC BELOW. THE FULL PROJECT COSTS N5,000 ONLY. THE FULL INFORMATION ON HOW TO PAY AND GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT IS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE. OR YOU CAN CALL: 08068231953, 08168759420

 

WHATSAPP US ON  08137701720

 

 

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF PICTURES ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN PROSE IN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the study

 

The importance of visual material in the process of language acquisition was researched by scholars belonging to the Cognitive approach. Some of the theories that these scholars have developed are related to the importance of the input, dual-coding theory and image schema theory, which are deeply linked with the visual and experimental relationship of the human being with the world. Cognitivists allege that second language acquisition can be better understood by focusing on how the human brain processes and learns new information (Mitchell and Myles 2004). It is assumed that the meaning constructed through the language is not independent module of the mind, but it reflects all of the human beings’ experiences (Geeraerts, 2006). Linguistic meaning is based on usage and experience, and therefore students should be place in an environment that trigger their experiences and let them use the language for real purposes as many times as possible.

 

Visuals can support the input that the student receives. In the cognitive approach to second language learning, a lot of prominence is given to the access to the target language input. Gass (1997) asserts that ‘second language acquisition is shaped by the input one receives’ (as cited in Fotos, 2000). Fotos also states that the input the students receive in the classroom can be manipulated in order to make it easier to understand, fitting their needs and level. She defends her position by arguing that teachers have been doing it over the years, with different strategies such as simplifying the grammar activities or physically highlighting the important points of a particular

 

 

 

 

 

 

topic (grammar structures or vocabulary) in the presentations or in the prints that they hand to them (Fotos, 2000).

 

This directs our attention to Krashen’s Input Hypothesis, which claims that ‘we move along the developmental continuum by receiving comprehensible input. Comprehensible input is defined as second language input just beyond the learners’ current second language competence in terms of syntactic complexity’ (Krashen, 1985, p.2). Thanks to the visuals provided in the classroom, the second language input will be easily understood. They provide conceptual scaffolding, through cultural context or other clues, and it helps with the natural associations of images and words (Nation and Newton 2009).

 

The dual-coding theory explains part of the way the brain process the new information (the input). As Paivio (1991) wrote, cognition is formed by two subsystems, a verbal one and a non-verbal one. The first is in charge of dealing directly with the language, and the second is specialized in dealing with non-linguistic objects and events. These two systems are assumed to work together in the language acquisition. Therefore ‘combining pictures, mental imagery,  and verbal elaboration could be an effective method in promoting understanding and learning from text by students ranging from grade school to university level’ (Paivio, 1991, p.163).

 

Another point developed by cognitvists, as it has been mentioned before, is the image schema theory. It derives from the claim that knowledge is not static, propositional and sentential, but is grounded in and structure by various patterns of our perceptual interactions, bodily actions and manipulation of objects (Gibbs, 2006).

 

Following Johnson and Latkoff studies, they suggest that over two dozen different image schemas and several image schema transformations appear regularly in people’s everyday thinking, reasoning and imagination (as cited in Gibbs, 2006). These image schemas are defined as ‘dynamic analogical representations of spatial relations and movements in space and each one of them reflect aspects of our visual, auditory and kinesthetic bodily experience’ (Gibbs, 2006, p. 240).

 

Lakoff and Johnson also coined a new term called the Experiential Realism that is based on the assumption that there is a reality “out there”, and that the purpose of our perceptual and cognitive mechanisms is to provide a representations of this reality (as cited in Evans and Green, 2006). According to this, if we want to set our students in a meaningful context, they should be placed in the reality they live in. In order to do it we must bring the reality “out there” inside the classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 3139283609

Bank: FIRST BANK

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

AFFILIATE LINKS:

myeasyproject.com.ng

easyprojectmaterials.com

easyprojectmaterials.net.ng

easyprojectsmaterials.net.ng

easyprojectsmaterial.net.ng

easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

projectmaterials.com.ng

googleprojectsng.blogspot.com

myprojectsng.blogspot.com.ng

https://projectmaterialsng.blogspot.com.ng/

https://foreasyprojectmaterials.blogspot.com.ng/

https://mypostumes.blogspot.com.ng/

https://myeasymaterials.blogspot.com.ng/

https://eazyprojectsmaterial.blogspot.com.ng/

https://easzprojectmaterial.blogspot.com.ng/