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THE INFLUENCE OF STUDY HABIT ON ADULT LEARNERS’ LITERACY
1.1 Background of the study
There are various dimensions of study skills. Robinson (1970) developed an aid to systematic study. The elements of the aid were condensed into the formula SQ3R, where „S‟ represents survey. This the overall picture of the unit of study, „Q‟ represents question and it emphasizes asking questions during the survey; „R1‟ represents read and this implies reading the complete task text with question previously formed in mind. “R2” stands for recite, which is finding out
what one actually remembers, and finally “R3” represents review. That is a swift and informed survey to consolidate the materials learned.
Similarly, Pauk (1982) developed another dimension of study skills which is in the form of systematic technique which is condensed into the techniques “OK4R” as Robinson‟s „SQ3R‟. There are some similarities in the two formulas. The OK4R stands for the following. „O‟ represents overview, this is the equivalent of survey in SQ3R. Here the reader is expected to look through the pages of each chapter as suggested under survey in the SQ3R technique. “K” represents key-points; the reader does the actual reading as in the third stage of the SQ3R. „R2‟ stands for recite. Here, the reader recites what he has learned. “R3‟ represents reflect. The reader reflects on all the points, questions, and answers that have emerged from the chapter. „R4‟ stands for review or revise. The reader is required to revise the work as in step five of the SQ3R technique.
The above two techniques were further modified by Unoh (1992) and he came out with technique known as the „2S3R‟. Here, „S1‟ stands for study. The reader reads slowly and intensively marking end of paragraph, pauses and marking the text book if and when necessary. „S2‟ stands for speed-read. This implies reading at a faster rate than in step one. „R1‟ stands for recite or record. The reader is required to test his capacity to recall the facts and information he has learned from the chapters. „R2‟ stands for review; the reader needs to go
over the whole section at a rapid reading rate, as if carrying out a final inspection of the book before parting with it. „R3‟ stands for reflect. The reader considers the extent to which he has in fact understood and evaluated the information given, whether they agree with those presented by other authors on the same subject and how relevant the information that arises is in examination or in life situation generally.
Based on the study skills that are condensed into a definite formula, Anderson (1979) identified that educators have found the SQ3R study method a useful technique for students from junior high age through adults. The SQ3R method of study allows students to study a text book chapter in less time with better understanding and better recollection of the information. It makes the reader more active rather than passive in his studying. It also increases concentration and remembering (Dunn, 1990). Moore (1991) perceives the SQ3R as an efficient strategy for teaching and learning. Tunner (1991) also saw the method as a very important asset for anyone who intends to venture into any kind of higher institution.
There are other study skills that are not condensed into any formula but are merely outlined to direct the reader. Anyagbunam (1979) described some adequate study skills which help students in secondary school to study on their own. These are, use of the library by students, having regular study times, keeping in good physical form for studying by engaging in extra-curricular
activities, use of past question papers, review of questions for revision, occasional study in isolation in order to understand, studying to understand material instead of memorizing, review of materials after reading, observation of breaks between long study periods, use of note books more than text books for revision.
In a similar view, Preston (2009) itemized a long list of basic skills that make a student efficient in learning. Such skills according to Preston (2009) are effective use of the library, effective use of internet facilities, efficient time management and avoidance of procrastination. He went further to emphasize that the above skills are not only fundamental but critical in the determination of what a student comes out with. Hills & Benlow (2008) also outlined the following study skills for effective study. These are, “adhere to your personal study time table” “get acquainted with the library”, „avoid procrastination”, “always remember your cues” “always take short breaks while studying” “remember to write down important points while reading” and others.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Many students are unable to attain mastery in learning because they do not have good study skills. In view of this, Haber & Robert (2009); Robinson (1970); Pauk (1982) have written books dealing with effective study skills in which they developed a number of study techniques. Most of the theories of how to study are in the form of guidelines which the student is expected to follow for effective study.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypothesis
H0: Study habit have a strong and significant impact on the academic performance of adult learners
H1: Study habit does not have a strong and significant impact on the academic performance of adult learners
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